Test yourself

1 An antimicrobial agent that kills microorganisms is termed_one that inhibits their growth is described as__

2 Heat treatment at temperatures in excess of 100° C is necessary to ensure the destruction of__

3 Steam heated under a pressure of 103 kPa in an autoclave reaches a temperature of_°C.

4 During tyndallisation, the material being treated is heated to between 90 and 100°C for about _ on three consecutive days. In the intervening periods, it is left at_°C, to allow any surviving_

5 The traditional method for the_of milk was to heat at_

for 30 minutes.

6 Moist heat is more effective than dry heat at the same temperature, because water is needed for the_of__

7 Ultraviolet light is used mainly in the sterilisation of_, because it has very poor_power.

8 _radiation is used in many countries to irradiate foodstuffs.

9 Liquids may be sterilised by the use of_made of polycarbonate or nitrocellulose.

10 _is a gas used in the sterilisation of hospital equipment.

11 After disinfection, there is a possibility that some microorganisms will

12 Ethanol is most effective as a disinfectant at a concentration of.

13 A number of chemical disinfectants are more effective when dissolved in

14 Chlorine and its derivatives are most widely used as disinfectants of

15 Tincture of_is an effective skin disinfectant.

16 The use of carbolic acid in operating theatres, introduced by reduced the number of fatalities due to infections.

17 The efficacy of a disinfectant can be measured as its_coefficient.

18 Soaps and detergents are examples of__

19 _is assumed when it is reckoned to be less than a one in a million chance of a microbial cell being present.

20 The time needed for a bacterial population to be reduced to one tenth at a particular temperature is called the__

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