The celebrated astronomer and biologist, Sir Fred Hoyle, said that the solutions to major unresolved problems should be sought by the exploration of radical hypotheses, while simultaneously adhering to well-tried and tested scientific tools and methods. This approach is particularly valid for environmental biotechnology. With new developments in treatment technologies appearing all the time, the list of what can be processed or remediated by biological means is ever changing. By the same token, the applications for which biotechnological solutions are sought are also subject to alteration. For the biotech sector to keep abreast of these new demands it may be necessary to examine some truly 'radical hypotheses' and possibly make use of organisms or their derivatives in ways previously unimagined. This is the basis of innovation; the inventiveness of an industry is often a good measure of its adaptability and commercial robustness.
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