Water Exchange

In the discussion above, and indeed in many studies employing dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in oncology, it has been assumed that tissues contain a single, homogenous, water population with well described MR properties that undergoes simple changes when subjected to a contrast agent. However, experiments from the early days of biomedical MR suggested that the situation is more complex than this (Hazlewood et al. 1974). Water is found in a number of different environments in a biological tissue....

References

Annet L, Materne R, Danse E, Jamart J, Horsmans Y, Van Beers BE (2003) Hepatic flow parameters measured with MR imaging and Doppler US correlations with degree of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Radiology 229 409-414 Asahina Y, Izumi N, Uchihara M, Noguchi O, Ueda K, Inoue K, Nishimura Y, Tsuchiya K, Hamano K, Itakura J, Himeno Y, Koike M, Miyake S (2003) Assessment of Kupffer cells by ferumoxides-enhanced MR imaging is beneficial for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma comparison of...

Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents

Hepatobiliary contrast agents utilise hepatic excretion mechanisms to produce hepatocyte uptake and biliary excretion of paramagnetic ions by binding them to appropriate ligands. Two agents, Mangafo-dipir trisodium (Mn-DPDP, Teslascan) and Gado-benate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA, Multihance) are commercially available and a third, gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA, Eovist) is in phase III clinical trials (see Tables 14.1 and 14.2). Mangafodipir is the first manganese complex that has been used as contrast...

MR Imaging of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors

A broad consensus on diagnostic assessment of mus-culoskeletal tumors has emerged over the past decade. Radiographs, clinical data and MRI can narrow the differential diagnosis, and in some cases precisely diagnose the tumor type (Ma 1999 van der Woude et al. 1998a). However, biopsy is still required for accurate diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions. Protocols for MR imaging and the intricacies of interpretation in diagnosing musculoskeletal lesions have been well described in recent reviews...