The main objectives were:

• To evaluate the role of preoperative radiotherapy.

• To compare two schedules of actinomycin D.

Figure 4.1 SIOP-1 trial schedule. Copyright © 1976 American Cancer Society. Adapted and reprinted from Lemerle et al. (full reference on p. 68) with permission from Wiley-Liss, Inc., a subsidiary of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

dose. The RFS was 54% and overall survival 82%. Eighty one patients received repeated actinomycin, in whom RFS was 58% and overall survival 86%, i.e. no significant difference.

The toxicities of the randomized arms with regard to other radiotherapy or chemotherapy were not given in detail.

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