Longevity Health and Wellness Protocol

Longevity Blueprint

This product was authored and created by Ben Green. This guy is a nutritionist and a consultant in matters regarding nutrition and health. With time, he has evolved into a fitness coach, author and also a bio hacker. His work was inspired by the observance of his chronological age being younger than the biological age. The man realized that at the age of 30-yeasr, his body functioned like that of a 20-year old boy. This product has the powerful protocols that am sure will change your life for good. The author realized that even the most influential well-being article only focuses on the physical fitness and nothing else. This eBook is designed to provide you a complete well-being evolution which covers beauty, fitness, health and longevity. It is an 8 week protocol with all the details that teaches you about the important parameters that adds to your longevity. The program has all the details to help you find out your current fitness level and later discover powerful practices that will break out your metabolism. Continue reading...

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The premature ageing syndromes

It was of interest to find out whether the rare genetic disorders known as premature ageing syndromes (Pesce & Rothe 1996) are related to a disorder in the secretion of GH or IGF1. All are characterized by marked growth retardation associated with early and fast ageing, various dermal changes (wrinkling, loose skin), hypotrichosis and early greying of the hair, and early death mostly by heart attacks due to atherosclerosis or congestive heart failure. In summary, the finding ofonly very few patients with GH deficiency among the patients with 'premature ageing syndromes' of genetic origin, the majority of whom have normal pituitary functions, indicates that their accelerated ageing and various complications are not related to GH or IGF1. The rare instances of GH deficiency must be considered coincidental.

The Msr System A Key to Longevity

The interesting possibility that the methionine sulfoxide reductases system may play a role in longevity was tested by Stadtman and Hoshi's laboratories using knock-out mice and transgenic Drosophila, respectively 69,82 . Their results suggest that overexpression of MsrA is important in death retardation. Overexpression of MsrA extended the lifespan of Drosophila by up to 70 . In wild-type Drosophila, neurons contain a high ROS production rate and endogenous Msr activity is low, implying that the latter may be a limiting factor in lifespan determination. In contrast, mice lacking the MsrA gene showed an accumulation of oxidized proteins and had a 40 shorter lifespan. A similar decrease in survival rates was observed for a MsrA null mutant of E. coli and S. cerevisiae 79,83 . In contrast, the MsrB null mutant and MsrB overexpression yeasts had only a slight effect upon lifespan. However, it was shown that the MsrA MsrB double null mutant had a lifespan which was more strongly reduced...

Life Span and the Aging Process

This increase was likely due to several factors, but perhaps the most important was the improvement of sanitation, hygiene, and public health from 1900 to 1998. These improvements included purification of drinking water, treatment of wastewater, widespread vaccination, and improved access to health care. However, even as these sanitary measures were adopted, other elements of modern life emerged as strong influences on life span, such as diet, exercise, and socioeconomic status. Studies have shown that individuals who exercise regularly, eat a diet lower in saturated fats, and avoid unnecessary risk-taking live longer. This may be because such a lifestyle reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and cancer, the top causes of death in developed countries. Finally, life span is in part genetically determined. Studies of life span in large families have shown that longevity is, to some degree, inherited. This may be due to shared genetic risks of diseases or behaviors that...

Effects of growth hormone and insulinlike growth factor 1 deficiency on ageing and longevity

Abstract Present knowledge on the effects of growth hormone (GH) insulin-like growth hormone (IGF)1 deficiency on ageing and lifespan are reviewed. Evidence is presented that isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD) including GH, as well as primary IGF1 deficiency (GH resistance, Laron syndrome) present signs of early ageing such as thin and wrinkled skin, obesity, hyperglycemia and osteoporosis. These changes do not seem to affect the lifespan, as patients reach old age. Animal models of genetic MPHD (Ames and Snell mice) and GH receptor knockout mice (primary IGF1 deficiency) also have a statistically significant higher longevity compared to normal controls. On the contrary, mice transgenic for GH and acromegalic patients secreting large amounts of GH have premature death. In conclusion longstanding GH IGF1 deficiency affects several parameters of the ageing process without impairing lifespan, and as shown in animal models prolongs longevity. In...

The concept of frailty and successful ageing

Although definitions of successful ageing in gerontology are numerous, there is still no generally accepted definition. Rowe and colleagues defined it as including three main components low probability of disease and disease-related disability, high cognitive and physical functional capacity, and active engagement with life (Rowe & Kahn 1997). Fries, amongst others, defined successful ageing as optimizing life expectancy while simultaneously minimizing physical, psychological and social morbidity (Fries 1988). Vaillant argued that in addition to physical health, there are three further dimensions, or outcomes, of successful ageing mental health, psychosocial efficiency and life satisfaction (Vaillant & Vaillant 1990). Part of the ageing process affecting body composition (loss of muscle size and strength, loss of bone, and increase in fat mass) might well be related to changes in the endocrine system (Korenman et al 1990, Rudman et al 1990).

Allostasis allostatic load and ageing

A feed-forward cascade of disinhibited HPA activity, and other dysregulations such as loss of oestrous cycling, impaired hedonic function (decreased spontaneous motor activity, caloric intake and sweet food preference, and intracranial self-stimulation), and decreased adaptive behaviours (Hatotani et al 1977, 1979, Katz 1982). These effects of chronic stress resemble those seen in ageing. Consistent with this similarity is the decreased longevity of inbred rat strains that are hyperreactive to stress. Mean lifespan is 15 months in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and 21.5 months in the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, compared with 31 months for the Brown Norway rat (Gilad & Gilad 1987, Brandle et al 1997). In summary, the neuropathological and neuroregulatory changes of normal ageing resemble those associated with chronic stress. These findings are consistent with the proposal that longevity is affected by allostatic load, and give new meaning to Selye's famous phrase, 'the stress of...

Kirk R Daffner Introduction

Two antithetical attitudes about diagnosis of dementia are common even within the medical community, each with damaging consequences. One is that changes in cognition and behavior seen in elderly individuals are simply a reflection of the normal aging process and thus can be readily dismissed. The second is that all disruptive cognitive decline in the elderly is due to Alzheimer's disease. The terms dementia and Alzheimer's disease often are used interchangeably. Either of these attitudes can lead to the unfortunate view that there is no need to make an effort to accurately diagnose dementia. Clearly, accuracy of diagnosis will become increasingly important as more treatments become available. Even now, accuracy of diagnosis remains an important goal. Perhaps most significantly, such efforts can help identify potentially reversible or treatable conditions that have contributed to cognitive decline and dementia. Accuracy of diagnosis can provide important prognostic information to...

Summary And Conclusion

It would seem that modulation of lipid intake and exercise training may mediate and reverse some of the age-associated depression in the immune system. As human aging generally is accompanied by a reduction in the level of physical activity and impaired responsiveness of the immune system, there may be a relationship between these concurrent changes and the increased incidence of, and mortality from, cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic infectious diseases with age. The studies on the immune system of centenarians suggest that the immune system in this population may not be declining with age, instead it is being constantly remodeled and reshaped as required. Appropriate fat and protein intake may improve immune function. Lipids modulate immune function by several factors and mediators. Both the quantity and type of dietary lipids are known to have modulatory effects on the cellular immune system at biochemical and molecular levels. The mechanisms by which lipids modulate the...

Gender Ethnicracial And Life Span Considerations

The incidence of gallbladder disease increases with age. Most patients are middle-aged or older women, often ones who have borne several children and gained weight during the aging process. Since there is a tendency for gallbladder disease to be familial, some young people of both sexes with a familial history can be affected, as well as young women who have taken oral contraceptives. Risk

The Mthfr Gene Product MTHFR

Some of the clinical implications of MTHFR 677C T are summarized in Chapter 2. The implications of MTHFR 677C T and MTHFR 1298A C in cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, venous thrombosis, longevity, neural tube defects, pregnancy, congenital abnormalities, preclampsia, diabetes, cancer, psychiatry, and renal failure are reviewed in refs. 19 and 20.

Nutrient status of river environments effect on benthic algal biofiims

The term 'eutrophication' was originally used in reference to the natural ageing process of lakes, and for a long time it was assumed that oligotrophic lakes were 'primitive' , 'evolving' to eutrophic water bodies as part of a natural progression. Although this has certainly occurred in some cases, the long-term continuation of oligotrophic lakes such as Lake Baikal (Russia) indicates it is not universal.

Pathology and Transmission

Despite these practical limitations, a number of studies have demonstrated the routes of virus transmission. BQCV has been detected in the eggs, larvae, and offspring of queens that were found to be infected - indicating that the virus is vertically transmitted. Similar findings have been made with ALPV which can be vertically transmitted in the aphid host, R. padi this infection subsequently results in reduced longevity and fecundity. It has also been shown that ALPV RNA can be detected in the developing embryos inside infected females.

Specific Features Of Flow Cytometry Data Management

There are a number of areas in which improvements may be made in the management of flow cytometry data, including ways for users and flow cytometry facility staff to help maximize the usefulness and longevity of data. These days, however, data storage is the simplest aspect of data management. Large, inexpensive disks make it easy to keep a large quantity of data online, and high-volume tape storage is inexpensive and compact. Recovery of data from tape, however, is slow, and the life expectancy of data tapes is shorter than the minimal 10 years that is appropriate for flow

Advisory Committee Preparation and Execution

In addition to the briefing documents and the presentations, the advisory committee process provided an opportunity for patients on the drug and patient advocacy groups to speak during the public session. The well-prepared and thoughtful presentations by the families of patients about their experience with Aldurazyme for nearly 5 years was compelling testimony as to the value and longevity of the clinical benefit. The families focused on the specific and measurable changes they observed in their children and the importance that these changes had in specific events in their daily lives. Although a public session cannot ever replace an appropriate development plan and good clinical data, a well-prepared and well-expressed public session can be effective in helping the panel appreciate the full story as to how the drug is working from those that know it firsthand. In the case of Aldurazyme, the clinical data and the strong patient support were an important component of the information...

Avocado Diseases of Major Importance Worldwide and their Management

Abstract Avocado fruit has become one of the most sought after food sources worldwide. It is a nutritious source of food and is part of the staple diet of many people in third world countries where it is cultivated and where it is native. Avocado is a specialty fruit, produced on a large scale in more than 30 countries around the world and because of its appeal, it is an industry that continues to grow. It is a very lucrative industry, and with over production growers have been forced to develop overseas markets, however, the competition on these markets is very intense and growers have to ensure that their fruit are of the highest quality, unblemished and disease-free. Production costs are very high owing to the cultural requirements of the avocado tree and the presence of diseases, which can be major limiting factors to production. Phytophthora root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, is such a disease. During the developmental stages of the fruit in the orchard and at...

Cellbound Complement Activation Products

The inconsistent results obtained from measures of soluble complement proteins and activation products have led us to consider measurement of cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs) as biomarkers for SLE diagnosis and monitoring. This hypothesis was based upon the following rationale. First, serum C3 and C4 levels have no diagnostic utility and limited monitoring utility, and the inherent flaws in these measurements have been well documented, as described above. Second, measurement of soluble complement activation products has been shown to have utility in certain clinical situations however, these assays have not replaced measurement of serum C3 and C4 in clinical practice. Furthermore, the half-lives of these fragments in the circulation are likely to be short. Third, cell-surface receptors for complement activation products are present on all circulating cells and may confound accurate and reliable measurement of the soluble activation products. Fourth, C3- and...

The Importance of the Electron Transport Chain

A disadvantage of oxidative phosphorylation, however, is the formation of reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals, which damage such cellular components as lipids, proteins, and DNA. A normally functioning electron transport chain produces reactive oxygen species from about 2 percent of the electrons that it transports. In disease states and in aging, larger quantities of reactive oxygen species are generated, and this may be a significant factor in cellular deterioration as well as a major contributor to the aging process.

The Acute Phase Response and Alzheimer Disease

Elevated plasma levels of cortisol have been found in moderate to severe AD (65,75,132,234,283,313). Orell and O'Dwyer (283) have explained that this may be initiated by excessive cytokine production by injured brain cells which trigger release of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) from the hypothalamus. CRF stimulates corticotropin release from the pituitary which in turn stimulates glucocorticoid release from the adrenal glands. The activity of this loop is, in part, regulated by the binding of glucocorticosteroid to corti-costeroid receptors in the hippocampus. In animals, aging is acompanied by an impairment in the ability of the hippocampus to inhibit corticotropin release, and is accompanied by a sustained high concentration of steroid production. In persons with AD, there is a delay in the decline of corticotropin concentration after challenge with dexamethasone. It is thought that the excessive and or prolonged cortisol secretion in AD may result in the persistent...

Differential Regulation of Key Signaling Molecules in Innate Immunity and Human Diseases

Egg Sinker Leader Combo

Differential splicing events in human cells give rise to two additional IRAK-1 variants, IRAK-1b and IRAK-1c. IRAK-1b derives from alternative splicing and deletion of 90bp within exon 12, which yields an in-frame deletion of 30 amino acids (residues 514-543) (Jensen and Whitehead 2001). IRAK-1c is due to alternative splicing and deletion of exon 11 and part of exon 12 (Rao, Nguyen, Ngo and Fung-Leung 2005). IRAK-1b exists in minute amount (less then 1 of IRAK-1) in most human cells and tissues with unknown function. On the other hand, the full length IRAK-1 and IRAK-1c are abundantly expressed in human leukocytes and most tissues (Rao et al. 2005 Su et al. 2007). In contrast to IRAK-1, both IRAK-1b and IRAK-1c are stable and do not undergo covalent modification following various stimulations (Li et al. 2000 Jensen et al. 2001 Su et al. 2007). Overexpression of IRAK-1c blocks IL-1P induced MAP kinase activation, suggesting that IRAK-1c may serve as a negative regulator of...

Glucose tolerance glucose utilization and insulin secretion in ageing

Ageing is associated with a decline in function in many, if not all, human physiological systems. Cardiovascular, haemodynamic, metabolic and renal functions generally decrease with advancing age. Insulin has been causally related in the aetiology of many of these decrements (Reaven 1988, Kaplan 1989, Stout 1990, DeFronzo & Ferrannini 1991). The reduction in whole-body carbohydrate metabolism in the elderly is one of the hallmarks of the ageing process and substantial evidence shows that increasing age is associated with decreased

Priming and Activation

Priming refers to a process whereby the response of cells to an activating stimulus is potentiated, sometimes greatly, by prior exposure to a priming agent (Table 2). Neutrophil and monocyte priming by agents such as TNF-a, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and LPS causes a dramatic increase in the response of these cells to an activating agent. This process has been shown to be critical for phagocyte-mediated tissue damage both in vitro and in vivo. The principal consequence of priming (aside from direct effects on cell polarization, deformability, and integrin selectin expression) is to permit secretogogue-induced superoxide anion generation, degranulation, and lipid mediator release (LTB4 and arachadonic acid). It is now recognized that most priming agents also serve an additional function of delaying apoptosis and hence increasing the functional longevity of these cells at sites of inflammation. The mechanisms underlying priming include changes in receptor number and or affinity, G-protein...

Of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Much of this reaction to the second law had an element of wishful thinking. Many philosophers quite simply hoped and expected the law to be wrong. If the universe was apparently running down, like a heat engine running out of steam or a clock unwinding, then perhaps, they thought, nature has some process up its sleeve that can serve to wind it up again. Some sought this countervailing tendency in specific systems. For example, it was commonly supposed at the turn of the twentieth century that life somehow circumvents the strictures of thermodynamics and brings about increasing order. This was initially sought through the concept of vitalism the existence of a life force that somehow bestowed order on the material contents of living systems. Vitalism eventually developed into a more scientific version, in what became known as organicism the idea that complex organic wholes might have organizing properties that somehow override the trend into chaos predicted by thermodynamics (Sheldrake...

Cells Of The Nervous System

Where Optic Nerve Brain

Divide and proliferate after an initial burst during embryological life (see Chapter 19). Instead, in many cases, they grow enormously in size. Indeed, the ratio of cytoplasm to DNA increases by a factor of 105 in some neurons during development (see also Appendix 3). Nor do they easily die except in old age and neurodegenerative conditions (see Chapter 21). Programmed death (apoptosis) does, however, play an important role during the development of the nervous system. That 'many are called and few are chosen' seems to be a common feature of neurobiology. It is easy to speculate that the longevity and stability of the neurons which survive to maturity has evolved because of the need to maintain signalling pathways through the brain. Perpetual scrambling of connections by the birth and death of cellular units would most likely be inconsistent with efficient information processing and memory.

Diabetesinduced Neuropathology

Radicular pathology in experimental diabetes was first reported by Tamura and Parry (36) and has subsequently been confirmed with remarkable agreement by others in both streptozotocin-diabetic and galactose-fed rats (28,34,37-39). The structural abnormality is focused on the myelin sheath and occurs in the context of marked interstitial oedema in both roots, although it is more frequent in the dorsal root. The earliest change consists of myelin splitting at the intraperiod line progressing to often-spectacular myelin ballooning. At this stage, strands of tubulovesicular myelin debris span the intramyelinic space and intratubal macrophages are sometimes observed stripping away myelin lamellae. There is minimal axonal degeneration associated with this myelin defect, suggesting that this lesion is a primary Schwann cell defect. Similar radicular pathology has been described in aged rodents (40), leading to the suggestion that its earlier appearance in experimental diabetes represents an...

Life History And Biology

Opiliones are oviparous and deposit between one (in cyphophthalmids) and several hundred (in phalangiids) eggs. Life cycles and longevity are variable. Many species live 1 year, with embryonic development occurring during the winter, with hatching in the spring, and reaching maturity in the fall, after five to seven molting periods. This is the typical seasonal life history of most Northern Hemisphere phalangiids. Others have an overlap of adults and juveniles throughout their life cycles during the favorable seasons, dying in the winter. Finally, cyphophthalmids and most laniatorids live several years, with cases recorded up to 5 years.

Eusociality Social Organization And Social Diversity

One of the outcomes of eusociality is that established colonies can be well defended by the workers against enemies. Thus, ant colonies are relatively K-selected that is, they are selected to hold onto resources and to persist for long periods rather than being ephemeral, here-today-gone-tomorrow, r-strategists. Associated with this trait is the extreme longevity of ant queens. It is estimated that they can live 100 times longer than other solitary insects of a similar size. Worker populations in mature, well-established monogynous colonies range from a few tens of millions to 20 million, and certain so-called supercolonies consist of a huge network of linked nests each with many queens. One supercolony of

Clinical Versus Pathological Dimensions of AD

*It is beyond the scope of this book to adequately address the debate over the relationship between so-called normal aging and AD (refs. a-e). Some of the pertinent issues are considered in the sections addressing AD pathology (Chapter 3) and early cognitive changes (Chapter 8). Two antithetical views have been posed one emphasizing the continuity and the other the differences between normal aging and AD. On a pathological plane, some would argue that qualitatively, normal aging and AD are very similar. The differences are only quantitative, with AD reflecting greater plaque and tangle burden (ref. f). AD is seen as an inevitable consequence of the aging process, such that anyone who lived long enough would develop the disease. From this perspective, the dividing line between normal aging and AD is relatively arbitrary. If the more extreme version of this view turns out to be correct, it would pose a challenge to efforts to identify individuals in the presymptomatic stages of AD. Even...

Pathogenicity and Histopathology

Tospoviruses are noted for the severity of the diseases they cause in plants. Symptoms include chlorotic or necrotic lesions or line patterns on inoculated and systemically infected leaves. Systemic invasion of plants is frequently nonuniform. Many plants exhibit chlorotic, concentric rings as a characteristic symptom. Stems and petioles may exhibit necrotic lesions. Symptoms are sufficiently severe and atypical that many syndromes observed on many plants mimic disease and injury caused by other stresses such as bacterial or fungal pathogens or chemical injury. Infection of younger plants result in severely stunted plants and are frequently lethal. The pathology of infected thrips has not been thoroughly examined, however, preliminary studies indicate that infected thrips have reduced reproductive rates and longevity.

The Importance of Transcription Factors

With few exceptions, every cell in a multicellular organism contains the same set of genes as every other cell. Despite this genetic equivalence, cells differ greatly in form, function, longevity, and many other characteristics. These differences are due to the differential expression of genes within each cell type. Thus, a nerve cell will express a certain subset of the entire genome, while a gut cell will express a different subset. (To express a gene means to use it to create its encoded product, usually a protein.) Cells become different from one another, therefore, by expressing different sets of genes. Thus, the problem of development can be addressed by understanding how initially identical cells come to express different sets of genes.

Novel Bioreactor Designs

Some bacteria will form biofilms on any surface such as metal, plastic, and glass. However, certain bacteria, such as lactobacilli, require something to stimulate this biofilm development (33). Plastic composite support (PCS) developed at Iowa State University has proven to stimulate biofilm development of Lactobacillus casei (22,34,36), Zymomonas mobilis (37,38), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (37,38,39), and Actinobacillus succinogenes (40). PCS is a high temperature extruded material consisting of at least 50 polypropylene, plus ground soybean hulls, bovine albumin and various culture micronutrients. Soybean hulls keep the extruded product porous due to the release of steam as the PCS leaves the extruder die. Bovine albumin performs as a natural plastizer which protects the temperature sensitive micronutrients. Micronutrients are selected based on the specific cultural requirements for amino acids, vitamins, and lipids. Monosaccharides are avoided due to poor PCS production. For example,...

Viral recombination lateral transfer natural hybridization and evolutionary diversification

Recombination, lateral transfer, and natural hybridization. Thus, whether a newly formed lineage of organisms is deemed by researchers as deserving of a taxonomic label, or is instead termed a hybrid, recombinant, or reassortant population, the question remains as to whether or not it reflects evolutionary diversification. For example, the evolutionary longevity of hybrid taxa that reproduce exclusively (or nearly so) through asexual means has been termed ' but an evening gone' (Maynard Smith 1992), reflecting a viewpoint that such lineages are inconsequential due to the relative brevity of their existence compared to sexually reproducing lineages (see also Griffiths and Butlin 1995). However, across widely varying clades of plants and animals, the same asexual lineages are repeatedly formed. Therefore, although the product of a single origin event may be (relatively) short-lived, the recurrent formation of lineages through natural hybridization between the same sexual forms...

Aging and ROS Production

Aging is a multifactorial phenomenon characterized by a time-dependent decline in physiological function, which varies between different species. Several theories have been proposed to explain the aging process. The free radical theory first proposed by Harman 12 hypothesized that free radicals produced during aerobic respiration cause cumulative oxida-tive damage to proteins, lipids and DNA, resulting in aging and death. The toxicity of oxygen is partly due to overproduction of the superoxide in the different cellular compartments of eukaryotic cells and especially in mitochondria 13,14 . At least 1 of the oxygen consumed by the mitochondrial respiratory chain leads to oxygen radical production and hydrogen peroxide formation 15,16 . Moreover, several studies on both humans and animals have demonstrated an age-related failure of mitochondrial respiration and a decrease in ATP synthase activity 17-19 , suggesting an increase in ROS production. In fact, ROS produced by normal...

The beneficial target heart rate

Beneficial HR target selection and progression assumes that the patient has developed the skill and confidence to exercise at these recommended intensities. The target range for the recommended physiologically effective heart rate, as summarised in Table 3.1, is directly linked with the training status of the individual. The more training an individual has done, from the perspective of frequency (times per week) and longevity ( 4 weeks), the greater the percentage of maximum (HR, HRR or VO2) at which that individual will need to work in order to gain further benefits (Ekblom, et al., 1968). This leads to the concept of considering intensity progression relative to both work rate and heart rate.

The Goal Of Prevention

Of antiestrogen use to hinder the development of primary disease. However, the issue will be critical over the next decade, because raloxifene is designed for indefinite use as a preventive for osteoporosis. It is only possible, at this point, to guess about the effectiveness of a long-term preventive strategy for postmenopausal women, because cardiovascular, bone, and cancer risks will all come into play for a woman's overall quality of life and, ultimately, longevity. Second, long durations of SERMs may be essential for true BC prevention during the promotion phase. The resolution of the competing effects of drug resistance and prevention can only be solved by large clinical trials or by an assessment of risk benefits of SERMs by a future generation of epidemiologists.

The impact of the HPA axis on human health

Since it is almost impossible to separate the effects of ageing and cumulative stress on the regulation of the HPA axis, it might be of interest to examine how the HPA axis activity is associated with diseases that are characteristic of ageing. This assumes that the insults on the HPA axis of wear and tear are an unavoidable consequence of ageing. Longevity runs in families and 'successful' ageing is likely to have genetic components. Perturbations of the regulation of the HPA axis and associated neuroendocrine reactions and disease risk factors are linked to molecular genetic characteristics. Although this molecular genetic information is so far preliminary and superficial, it might serve to generate ideas of new approaches to the problem of neurendocrine endocrine and autonomic ageing.

Ageing and the HPA axis

In order to separate out the effects of a 'normal' ageing process from the effects of external factors, one would have to examine the HPA axis and its associated cascade of reactions in other neuroendocrine and autonomic systems in older subjects who have not been exposed to the wear and tear of life. This is of course not possible even ifone were to find a population totally separated from modern, urbanized life, because there are always surrounding factors which activate our stress systems.

Ageing and lifespan in GHIGF1deficient mice

Several mouse models with GH IGF1 deficiency are available to study the influence of these hormones on ageing and longevity (lifespan). Due to the IGF1 deficiency all homozygous affected mice are dwarfed and they divide as the human models into MPHD including GH (e.g. the Ames dwarf mice and the Snell dwarf mice) and primary IGF1 deficiency (the Laron mouse). FIG. 5. Increased longevity in Ames dwarfed mice compared to normal controls of the same breed. Reproduced with permission from Bartke (2000). FIG. 5. Increased longevity in Ames dwarfed mice compared to normal controls of the same breed. Reproduced with permission from Bartke (2000). At present it is not clear how GH IGF1 deficiency prolongs the lifespan in mice. It is possible that certain genes are involved. Mutations of a recently described insulin receptor like-gene, Daf2, result in increased longevity (Kimura et al 1997). This receptor, possibly homologous to the mammalian IGF1 receptor, mimics primary IGF1 deficiency. Nor...

Alternative Cell Death In The Nervous System

Activated in different subsections of the cell (19,75). For instance, synaptic damage and neurite regression can occur by Bcl-2- and caspase-independent mechanisms (60,107,135) and be initially reversible (128), whereas final elimination of cells may depend on caspases or proteasomal activities (60). The role of caspases as enhancers of the final phase of cell degeneration may apply to many common diseases. The longevity of neurons, combined with their dependence on effective intracellular transport, makes them sensitive to a slow form of death associated with the formation of intracellular polypeptide aggregates involving the amyloid-6 precursor protein (APP), ataxins, presenilins, huntingtin, tau, and alpha-synuclein (75). As most of these proteins are caspase targets (136) and become more toxic after cleavage, caspases might contribute to the accelerated death of neurons at the end of a caspase-independent degeneration phase, or vice versa, make neurons sensitive to alternative...

Use of Neuropsychological Tests and Test Batteries for Detecting and Predicting Early Alzheimers Disease

To address the need for a more reliable, rapidly administered screening test designed to detect elders with PrAD, Solomon et al. (79a) developed the 7 Minute Neurocognitive Screening Battery (known as the 7 Minute Screen). Unlike the MMSE and the IMC, this screening tool consists of four brief tests that take advantage of the evolving understanding of the cognitive differences between PrAD and the normal aging process. Purported to take an average of 7 minutes 42 seconds to administer, this screening test demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity (92 ) and specificity (96 ) in a random sample of elders referred to a

Rescue of Autoreactive B Cells by T Cell Independent Antigens of Type I TLRLigand AntigenComplexes

Immature and mature B cells express Toll-like receptors (TLR) (Akira and Takeda 2004) such as TLR2 (for bacterial lipoprotein), TLR4 (for bacterial LPS),andTLR9 (for bacterial actaspolyclonalactivatorsforboth stages ofBcellde-velopment, inducing the B cells to proliferation and maturation to Ig secreting cells. At limiting, nonpolyclonally activating concentrations of these TLR lig-ands, hapten-TLR ligand conjugates can induce hapten-specific B cell proliferation and maturation. In this way, conjugates of CpG with double-stranded (ds) DNA, as well as chromatin-IgG complexes, can activate dsDNA-specific IgG or chromatin-specific IgG, respectively, i.e., autoantigen-reactive B cells to autoantibody production. Initially, and perhaps normally, the peripheral B cell repertoires might not contain high-avidity autoantigen-reactive B cells, therefore limiting these TLR-dependent, initially T cell-independent responses to low-affinity autoantibodies. However, high-affinity autoantibodies...

Adaptation to Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress

Exercise increases the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), and by causing adaptations could decrease the incidence of RONS-associated diseases. A single bout of exercise, depending upon intensity and duration, can cause an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity, decrease levels of thiols and antioxidant vitamins, and result in oxidative damage as a sign of incomplete adaptation. Increased levels of RONS and oxidative damage are initiators of a specific adaptive response, the stimulation of the activation of antioxidant enzymes, thiols and enhanced oxidative damage repair. Regular exercise has the capability of developing compensation to oxidative stress, resulting in overcompensation against the increased level of RONS production and oxidative damage. Regular exercise also causes adaptation of the antioxidant and repair systems, which could result in a decreased base level of oxidative damage and increased resistance to oxidative stress. In this paper...

Omics Technologies from Cell to Field

Omics Technologies

Responses described here to be investigated at metabolic, cell and molecular levels. An intriguing possibility is that fungi optimized for developmental response to nutrients will prove to be enlightening models for dissecting the cellular links between carbon and nitrogen nutrient sensing and cell development. Recently huge advances have been made in our understanding of nitrogen and carbon nutrient sensing and developmental pathways in yeasts (Cooper, 2004). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Roosen et al., 2005) the protein kinase Sch9 is a glucose and nitrogen-responsive regulator involved in nutrient signalling, that affects cell size and longevity. It controls the transcription of clusters of genes encoding proteins with functions in proteolysis, stress response and filamentous and invasive growth forms. Together with the transcription factor TOR, it is believed to compose a nutritional integrator system controlling a morphological switch that induces invasive pseudohyphal growth...

Why offlabel use of drug should be avoided

In recent years, the government has attempted to regulate off-label promotion in response to subtle efforts by industry to conceal direct incentive payments to clinicians, questionable consultant contracts, and all-expense paid 'educational' trips. The alleged deceptive off-label marketing of gabapentin (Neurontin) was settled for 468 million.1 A more recent example is human growth hormone, which was never approved either to spur growth in children who were not hormone-deficient, or to slow the aging process in adults. Yet it has been widely prescribed for both indications.

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Sectors and Materials

Perfume Industry Teechnology

All these attributes and a number of others continue to characterise the current food trends. Additionally, health, wellness, variety and anti-aging are the major driving forces of today's functional foods. Never before has the consumer been so sensitive to the correlation between health consciousness, diet and long life, nutrition and fortification with a simultaneous acceptance and growing consumption of better tasting, ready-to-use convenience foods 12, 13 .

Background Information

The intracellular dye CFSE is cell permeant and remains nonfluorescent until cellular esterases cleave carboxyl groups from the molecule, rendering it both nonpermeant and fluorescent. In addition, the succinimidyl moiety covalently attaches to amine groups, and thereby contributes to the longevity of staining. During cell division, CFSE is distributed equally between daughter cells. This has been validated by simultaneous quenching of Hoechst dye fluorescence by BrdU to determine cell division (Lyons and Parish, 1994). Depending on the intensity of the starting fluorescence, around eight discrete division cycles can be determined using this standard protocol in hematopoietic cells. The number of divisions which can be followed is limited only by the autofluorescence level of unlabeled cells and the uniformity in size of the labeled cell population. As a dividing cell population approaches this autofluorescence level, the division peaks start to compress, preventing resolution beyond...

Error Prone Replication and Quasispecies

In the 1970s, Manfred Eigen and also Peter Shuster developed a fundamental theoretical model of virus evolution. A set of ordinary differential equations was published that described what was called 'quasispecies'. Starting from measurements of phage mutation rates, they considered the consequences of high error rates as expected from RNA replication (an error-prone noncor-recting replication process). The resulting population shared many properties and was called quasispecies, a society (or community) of individuals that are the error products of replication. The name 'quasispecies' thus describes a chemically diverse set of molecules and was not intended to refer to a biological species (i.e., genetic exchanging). However, as discussed above, the fuzzy definition of virus species and quasispecies overlaps somewhat, which has been a source of confusion. Several premises were used to develop this theory (1) the individual products ignore one another and interact only as individuals...

Depression an allostatic disorder with premature mortality

Human depression is a clear example of the allostatic link between chronic stress and reduced longevity. The importance of psychosocial stress for provocation of depressive episodes, for vulnerability to, and for risk of depression has been reviewed by Checkley (1996). Depression is an established outcome of stress, and the ongoing depressive episode itself constitutes a chronic stress. In large, prospective studies of adverse medical outcomes in depression, the customary psychiatric distinction between depressive symptoms and a depressive syndrome appears not to be important. Stress is a risk factor for both major depression (syndrome) and minor depression (symptoms). Minor depression is both a prodrome of major depression and an outcome of major depression and major depression is a major outcome of minor depression.

Effects of Impact Energy and Bone Integrity

Cancer, infection, or any of the multitude of diseases affecting bone metabolism will surely lead to decreased bone strength (50). Unfortunately, the natural aging process also leaves our bones less able to resist external forces (67). Regardless of the specific etiology, weakened bones are surely more prone to fracture. In general, fractures to osteoporotic bone, for example, will have a higher level of comminution than would


A very important motif in Chinese art, being the symbol of longevity in both Chinese and Japanese systems, and the most frequently portrayed plant form on Chinese porcelain. The bamboo, prunus, and pine together are the emblems of Buddha, Confucius and Lao Tzu, the Three Friends (Savage. 1964). In some parts of Japan, there is a superstition that bamboo will bring death within three years of its planting (Bownas), which is odd, because Japanese mythology has it as generally a lucky symbol, representing tenacity and courage (J Piggott), and, as mentioned, long life, as is the pine. They usually combine the two to decorate gateposts at New Year (Seki).


BNYVV is not transmitted by seed or pollen however, the spread of the virus can result from soil contamination of seeds which have been produced in infested areas. Dried infected roots or air-dried soils have been shown to retain the infectivity for more than 15 years. A similar longevity of the fungus is observed in field conditions. Thus the virus disease has occurred when sugarbeet has been grown in fields in which no crops have been cultivated for 10-15 years.


In elderly men, ageing is accompanied by a decrease in objective and subjective physical function, as well as changes in body composition and bone mass. In parallel, important changes in the endocrine system occur. Testosterone administration seems to influence bone mass and perhaps muscle strength, although insufficient evidence exists to confirm that testosterone substitution in the elderly is indicated. Also, oestradiol seems to influence bone mineral density in elderly men. Although DHEA and its sulfate have been regarded as the hormone of youth, studies performed so far do not yet indicate a role for these adrenal hormones in maintaining physical functional status. DHEA, nevertheless, might have beneficial effects on cardiovascular and immunological processes. It remains unclear how hormones of the somatotropic axis contribute to the ageing process. Traditionally, the ageing process has been considered physiological and unavoidable. In recent years, however, it has become evident...

Elderberry Wine

Apparently once called Pop-gun in the south of England (Halliwell), it has always been popular, so much so that whole orchards of the trees were planted in Kent, and the berries have even been used for making ersatz port (Jordan). Evelyn (in Sylva, 1729) was of the opinion that it greatly assisted longevity , and Cobbett was enthusiastic too - a cup of mulled elder wine, with nutmeg and sippets of toast, just before going to bed on a cold winter's night, is a thing to be run for . Besides, it is good for sciatica, so it is claimed (Moloney), and according to another Irish belief, drinking it will cure pimples on the face (Maloney). Mulled elderberry wine is certainly good for a sore throat, and also for asthma, so it is claimed (Hatfield).

Disease Targets

Gene therapy may also be effective in treating cancer or viral infections such as HIV-AIDS. It can even be used to modify the body's responses to injury. These approaches could be used to reduce scarring after surgery or to reduce restenosis, which is the reclosure of coronary arteries after balloon angioplasty. Each of these cases will be discussed in more detail below, but first we will deal with two technical issues of gene transfer gene delivery and longevity of gene expression.

Pcd In Yeast

ROI may play an important role in the yeast aging process as well. A recent study indicated that deletions of genes coding for superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase, as well as changes in atmospheric oxygen concentration, resulted in ROI accumulation in yeast mother cells and significantly shortened their life span (8). The addition of the antioxidant glutathione, on the other hand, increased the life span of yeast cells. Accumulation of ROI in the mitochondria of aging mother cells was accompanied by phenotypic markers of yeast apoptosis.


Southern Indian symbolism equates the Jackfruit tree with the life-span of the family and its ancestral house, so it is a sacred tree there (Rival). One will be planted at the south-west corner of a house, to be associated, not with the ghost of an original family member, but with all the ancestors of the house and the past and present family group that it shelters. The tree therefore is a metaphor for the longevity of the house-family group (Uchimayada). But it is feared in Jamaica, where no driver will agree to carry them - they think it attracts duppies, and will cause an accident (Newall. 1981).


From the clinical and experimental studies reviewed it ensues that longstanding GH IGF1 deficiency of genetic origin does not shorten lifespan. On the contrary, it may prolong it, as is clearly evident from animal models. This occurs simultaneously with the development of some characteristic changes of early ageing (thinning of skin, wrinkling, obesity, reduction in lean body mass) but arrest of other signs, such as greying of hair. It has also been shown that high levels of GH accelerate death. How exactly GH and IGF1 affect the ageing process and duration of life remains to be established.


Shredded Osmunda

And have a very short shelf life of about three weeks. Refrigeration extends their viability somewhat, and freezing (by simply wrapping the spores in a protective origami folded paper and stashing it atop the ice cream) improves their longevity significantly. While the spores germinate readily, the offspring are frustratingly slow to develop into mature plants.


Like other holometabolous insects, lepidopterans pass through egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages. Mating and egg deposition are carried out by the adult moths and butterflies. Within the eggs, embryos develop to fully formed larvae. The larvae, commonly called caterpillars, feed and grow, which is accomplished by a series of stages (instars). At maturity they transform to pupae, usually within silken cocoons spun by the larvae, although many species pupate without a cocoon. Metamorphosis to the adult occurs during the pupal stage, and the fully developed adult breaks the pupal shell to emerge. Adults of most species feed, but they do not grow. Diapause, an arrested state of development, may occur in any of these stages, prolonging life and enabling the insect to bypass seasons that are unsuitable for growth and reproduction.

Colony Senescence

Colonies of many temperate eusocial insects are annual and appear to exhibit a programmed decline and senescence. Colony decline appears to be related to queen longevity and queen condition. For example, late-season colony breakdown appears to follow a decline in the queen's ability to suppress worker reproduction or the queen's death, in temperate bumble bees, Polistes paper wasps, and yellowjackets. The queen is not the whole story, however. Queens lost early in the season can be replaced or supplanted by reproducing workers without colony decline. The larger worker forces that are present late in colony development may be harder for the queens or their replacements to suppress. However, closely related species in less seasonal habitats do not exhibit time- or stage-determined colony decline. The plasticity of colony development exhibited in subtropical and tropical habitats by temperate invaders, such as German yellowjackets (Vespula germanica), may provide valuable insights into...

Bee Keeping

Lived to 108, attributed his long life to it (M Baker. 1980). Indeed, there was a once popular restorative cordial , supposed to confer longevity, called Carmelite Water, apparently still made in France, under the name Eau de m lisse des Carmes, by macerating the fresh flowers and tops in fortified white wine, together with a variety of spices (Clair). There was also an Aqua Mellis, taken to be a decoction of balm, that was much used in 17th century England against baldness (Burton).


Positioning the electrodes begins with the introduction of the anode. Where it is placed is not important, as long as it is distal to the nerve entrance. The cathode is positioned with the help of an auxiliary electrode connected to the needle. Stimulation is given, and the needle can be used to find the optimal place for the electrode. By decreasing the amplitude of the stimulation, one can find the spot where the muscle contracts at the lowest voltage. Normally, this will be very close to the nerve. Low voltage is important for longevity of the stimulator. When the optimal position is found for the cathode, the electrode is brought through the muscle and anchored to the epimysium. Both electrodes are now in position and can be stored for the next phase of the operation. The dynamized muscle is now pulled through the tunnels according to the chosen configuration. The tendon is anchored to the suture already placed through the periosteum of the pubic bone.


After the operation, the stimulator is programmed to off to allow the gracilis to recover. After 1 month, training of the muscle can begin by programming the stimulator to a low frequency of 2.1 Hz. This is continued for 2 weeks and then increased to 5.2 Hz. This frequency is maintained for 2 weeks and then increased to 10 Hz. After 2 weeks, the stimulator is programmed to 15 Hz. This setting creates nonun-dulating muscle stimulation. The training period is now complete, and the gracilis can be stimulated forever . The stimulator can be switched off for defecation, and the patient is advised to do the same during the night, as it will save battery life. Stimulator longevity was shown to be 8 years in a large series


Animal experimentation has been opposed by antivivisectionists on very many grounds (a) inapplicability or limited applicability of data to humans owing to cross-species differences (b) methodological unsoundness (being unscientific) (c) dangerously misleading and harmful results (d) wastefulness, inefficiency, and expense (e) triviality (f) redundancy (g) motivation by mere curiosity (h) cruelty (i) availability of alternatives and (j) desen-sitization of researchers and their coworkers. Scientists who are animal users regularly argue that great advances in medicine and human (and animal) health would not have occurred without animal experimentation. However, antivivisectionists claim that most of the important breakthroughs (e.g., increased longevity, control of infectious diseases) would have occurred, or even did occur, without animal experimentation, and furthermore that animal experimentation has in many instances retarded progress. However, some antivivisectionists acknowledge...

Live or Dead

The detection of nucleic acids from pathogens has been recognized as a source of interpretative error in molecular investigations of food and environmental samples. Pathogens detected may not be alive and may present no risk to humans. The viable but nonculturable state into which some organisms such as Vibrio, Salmonella, and Campylobacter can enter further complicates interpretation. rRNA is an attractive target for detection because of its universal and constituent expression and its high copy number. Its longevity is shorter than DNA and some investigators have used this as a measure of whether the organism detected is alive or dead, taking the detection of rRNA to indicate viability or very recent death. However, it has been shown that this assumption is only valid when cell death is caused by extreme conditions that also destroy RNases and disrupt ribosomes. Under less extreme conditions such as UV irradiation and most thermal food processes, rRNA is protected and degrades more...

Mobilising exercises

Range of movement exercises such as shoulder lifts and rolls, scapular retractions, trunk side bends, ankle plantar dorsiflexion, etc. should promote release of synovial fluid into the joint capsule. This will ensure the joints are well lubricated and cushioned. The increased blood flow raises the temperature within the tendons, muscles and ligaments surrounding each joint, improving their viscoelastic properties and allowing fuller range of movement. Preparatory stretches (PS) can be used to assist mobilisation. These should focus on the muscle groups, which are prone to adaptive shortening, either as a result of the ageing process, or as a result of cardiac surgery. With PS the muscle is lengthened to a point where mild tension is experienced and then held still for approximately 10 seconds. While stretches are being performed, it is essential to keep the rest of the body moving to avoid a drop in heart rate or venous pooling. There continues to be some debate on the benefits of PS...

Genetics and Aging

Many scientists have hypothesized that some genes may control aspects of aging separate from the development of disease. These hypotheses are based on experimental studies of non-human organisms and the observation that longevity in humans appears to run in families. Studies of yeast and round-worm have identified over ten genes in each that are associated with longevity and aging, and more recent studies have suggested similar genes exist in the fruit fly. The exact function of these genes is unknown, but one or more may help slow down the metabolic rate. Studies in mice have shown that reducing metabolism by reducing food intake can increase life span. Finally, shortening of the telomeres decreases longevity in some model organisms. Finding similar genes in humans is more complicated, since scientists cannot experimentally control genes to test their effects on longevity in

The Fauna

A few time-series studies have noted growth characteristics of some species. Large individuals of Calyptogena magnifica on the East Pacific Rise are estimated to reach ages between 20 and 40 years, and testify to a relative longevity of some vent sites (Lutz et al., 1988). Rates are highly site-dependent, the highest values occurring in areas of high fluid flux and sulphide delivery. Mussels can grow in length by a centimetre a year (Roux et al., 1989). Tube worms from vents are most impressive species colonizing new vents with optimal conditions grow almost a metre per year (Lutz et al., 1994 Tunnicliffe et al., 1997). On the other hand, the longevity of seep vestimentiferans is equally impressive Bergquist et al. (2000) have estimated ages over 200 years for seep Lamellibrachia, although variability in growth rate is very high.

Fruit Body Survival

The longevity of fruit bodies is obviously important for dispersal, but so also is the period over which spores are actively produced and released, and the viability germinability of spores produced at different times. While some species retain high germinability of spores produced over several weeks, e.g. Perenniporia tenuis var. tenuis and Coriolopsis gallica, with others there is a decline, e.g. germ-inability of Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum declined from 94 to 19 and 44 , respectively, 5 weeks after fruiting was initiated in culture (Schmidt and French, 1983).

Studies in humans

In an attempt to summarize the human data, there is no conclusive evidence that ageing per se is associated with a faulty regulation of the HPA axis, although this must be considered impossible to study in a meaningful way because it requires all external influences to be absent. There is, however, suggestive evidence that in the ageing person there is often a diminished rate of return of cortisol secretion to basal values after challenge, which may be due to an inefficient feedback regulation. This would then agree with the better-controlled animal data on the input of ageing. It is impossible, however, to judge whether this is a consequence of the ageing process or due to repeated exposure to stressful events during a long life. Normal ageing is unavoidably associated with exposure to the wear and tear of daily life. There are clearly individual differences in the sensitivity and perception of such challenges, and these differences most likely have a genetic basis. Increased...


The true ginseng, from northern China, is now rare because of the extensive use of the root in Chinese medicine. The forked root was treated like the human form (like mandrake, in fact it would seem that the whole of the mandrake legend spread to China, and became attached to ginseng) (G E Smith) (see MANDRAKE). It was used as a universal panacea indeed Panax, the name of the genus, has the same derivation as panacea, i.e., heal-all (W A R Thompson. 1976). The name All-heal is even recorded in English (Hal-liwell). Ginseng, the name, is Chinese Jin-chen, which means man-like (W A R Thompson. 1976), and it was because of this supposed resemblance that the doctrine of signatures worked, that is to say that the plant healed all parts of the body. The more closely the root resembled the human form, the more valuable it was considered, and well-formed roots were worth their weight in gold (Schery) - as an aphrodisiac (Simons). It was the Dutch who brought the root to Europe, in 1610, and...

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