Foods you can eat with Kidney Problems

Kidney Function Restoration Program

The All Natural Kidney Health & Kidney Function Restoration Program is a compilation of the best and most effective natural treatments for kidney disease from around the world. The system is meant to complement your usual medication and not to replace it. This easy to understand kidney disease program can help you make better-informed decisions about what is the right thing to do to support your kidney and return it to its former healthy state. The techniques shared in this program will help cure and retain your kidney back to its natural wellness. You may even be able to postpone or entirely avoid dialysis or a kidney transplant forever. The All Natural Kidney Health and Kidney Function Restoration Program contain zero filler and is fully backed by modern-day scientific research. Everything contained in this program is safe, natural, and with good safety profiles, proven case studies and doctor recommended. Many of the products including the diet, herbs, and supplements have been used safely in other countries for many years and in several hospitals in the United States. Read more here...

Kidney Function Restoration Program Summary


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Monitoring Kidney Function

Screening for kidney disease is very important because there are treatments that prevent the kidney disease from getting worse (see Chapter 3). The screening usually starts five years after diagnosis in people with type 1 diabetes, and at diagnosis in people with type 2 diabetes. The ADA recommends that people with diabetes be screened annually for kidney disease by measuring blood creatinine levels and urine albumin level in the first morning urine. It is not necessary to do a twenty-four-hour or an overnight urine collection the spot urine first thing in the morning is just as good. Your doctor will give you a small urine cup, and you will collect the first morning urine and take it to the lab. A urine albumin of less than 30 (milligrams per gram creatinine) is normal, 30 to 300 indicates early diabetic kidney disease (microalbuminuria), and greater than 300 indicates more significant disease (macroalbuminuria).

As An Adjunct To Dialysis

Loop diuretics have also been administered to patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance dialysis in an attempt to reduce interdialytic weight gains, prevent heart failure or pulmonary congestion, and control blood pressure without unpalatable limitations in fluid or sodium intake. It has also been suggested that this strategy could reduce the number of hypotensive episodes which occurred during hemodialysis during removal of excess fluid. The ma jority of these studies have been performed in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Most individuals on dialysis who have residual renal function respond to loop diuretics, although very large doses are frequently required. However, the effect of diuretics on weight gain and blood pressure in this population have been inconsistent. In a double blind study of hemodialysis patients with residual creatinine clearances of less than 4 ml min, 200 mg per day of torasemide or 250 mg of furosemide increased fractional sodium excretion compared...

Internal Disinfection of the Dialysis Monitors

Disinfection of the monitors for dialysis, whichever method and agent used, is not a single operation but consists of a series of operations in succession which should comprise primarily a procedure of post-dialysis rinsing and pre-disinfection, then cleansing, descaling, thorough disinfection and a final post-disinfection rinse so that the machine is in perfect condition for the successive dialysis sessions. Post-Dialysis Pre-Disinfection Rinse This is done with the aim of removing all residue of the dialysis solution from the hydraulic circuit of the machine, and if correctly carried out for a sufficient time with adequate flux it makes a valid contribution to the removal of organic substances such as hematic traces coming from an intradialytic rupture of the filter. It is particularly important for the removal of glucose residue which, if not completely eliminated, 'caramelizes' when heat-disinfection is used and represents an ideal pabulum for germs. The aim is to act on the...

Chronic Renal Failure

Chronic renal failure (CRF) lipoprotein abnormalities are characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and a reduced HDL. The LDL particles in CRF tend to be of the phenotype B variety and therefore are more atherogenic. Atherogenicity is further enhanced by elevated Lp(a) levels. Decreased activity of both LPL and hepatic lipase are presumed to induce decreased clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Unfortunately, these abnormalities do not resolve with the institution of dialysis or transplantation (11).

Chronic Renal Failure Introduction

Chronic renal failure (CRF) is the progressive deterioration of kidney function that reaches 50 or more loss or a creatinine level of less than 2 mg dl. Causes include congenital kidney and urinary tract abnormalities in children less than 5 years of age, and glomerular and hereditary kidney disorders in children 5 to 15 years of age. The disease involves all body systems as abnormalities include water, Na+, Ca++ losses, K+, HPO2-4, Mg++ increases, and reduced Hgb and Hct that result in metabolic acidosis, anemia, growth retardation, hypertension, and bone demineralization. Eventually, if untreated, uremic syndrome develops as the kidneys are not able to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance. End stage renal disease (ESRD) is defined as loss of kidney function at 90 or greater. ESRD is the term applied when the kidneys are no longer able to clear wastes from the body. Eventually the disease terminates in death unless kidney transplantation or dialysis is performed.

Salt Retention with Severe Renal Failure andor Acute Glomerulonephritis

Patients with markedly reduced glomerular filtration rates will filter much less salt than normal. Renal tubule salt reabsorption decreases, but if a large quantity of salt is ingested progressive positive salt balance and overload will develop. When salt intake exceeds output, ECF, interstitial and vascular volume all expand. The pattern of distribution of retained salt and water which occurs in patients with severe renal failure is more symmetrical than that which develops in most patients with nephrotic syndrome. All the subcompartments of the ECF expand to produce hypertension, pulmonary congestion, cardiomegaly, and generalized edema. The different salt distribution patterns in nephrotic patients and in patients with renal failure may be due to their different plasma albumin concentrations in these conditions. Hypoalbuminemia favors an accumulation of retained salt and water in the interstitial space. However, some nephrotic patients develop massive edema, without vascular...

Microdialysis Equipment

Perfusion Ringer (PR) Dialysis fibers are perfused with isotonic solution, the composition of which should resemble as much as possible the composition of brain extracellular fluid. Because fluid composition in each specific brain area is unknown and subject to time variations, PR composition has been validated on the base of its capacity to cause minimal alteration of brain function in that specific brain area, being compatible with voltage-responsive and calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release. The composition of PR used in our most recent investigations is 147 mMNaCl, 2.2 mM CaCl2, 4 mMKCl. It can be pumped through the dialysis probe at a constant flow of 1 L min. The rationale of ionic composition of PR has been debated in several articles (5,6). The most critical ions in the PR composition are K+ and Ca2+. The former is critical because its presence in the PR may alter physiological depolarization of terminals, with a consequent change in neurotransmitter release. Experiments...

Various Applications in Dialysis

Ronco C, Mishkin GJ (eds) Disinfection by Sodium Hypochlorite Dialysis Applications. Contrib Nephrol. Basel, Karger, 2007, vol 154, pp 139-144 Amuchina 10 Solution, Safe Antiseptic for Preventing Infections of Exit-Site of Tenckhoff Catheters, in the Pediatric Population of a Dialysis Program

Biofilm and Disinfection in Dialysis

Disinfection enters the quality assurance program in dialysis and represents part of the various anti-inflammatory treatment strategies adopted to improve outcome in these patients. Fig. 1. Subsequent phases of biofilm formation with bacterial deposition (a), attachment (b), growing (c) up to a mature biofilm (d) onto a silicone tube from a dialysis monitor hydraulic circuit. Fig. 1. Subsequent phases of biofilm formation with bacterial deposition (a), attachment (b), growing (c) up to a mature biofilm (d) onto a silicone tube from a dialysis monitor hydraulic circuit. Fig. 2. Biofilm presence on a peritoneal dialysis catheter removed because of peritonitis caused by colonization. Fig. 2. Biofilm presence on a peritoneal dialysis catheter removed because of peritonitis caused by colonization. Today, as a matter of fact, disinfectants in dialysis are considered as class II devices and therefore regulated by FDA in the US and CE mark application directives in Europe. Therefore...

Ficolins and IgA Nephropathy IgAN

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common renal disease that is characterized primarily by mesangial deposition of IgA (Floege and Feehally 2000 Donadio and Grande 2002). Earlier studies showed that IgA activates the alternative pathway of complement, whereas more recent data also indicate activation of the lectin pathway. Activation of the lectin pathway of complement is associated with more severe renal damage (Roos et al. 2006). It was also demonstrated that both MBL and ficolin were found to contribute to the progression of the to IgA nephropathy (IGAN) (Roos et al. 2006). All Glomerular deposition of MBL was positively associated with co-deposition of L-ficolin. Renal biopsies of patients with IgAN showed mesangial deposition of IgA1 but not IgA2. Circulating IgA1 from patients with IgAN was reported to have aberrant glycosylation of O-linked glycans, which potentially are involved in recognition by lectins. Precise identification of the ligand for MBL and L-ficolin in the mesangium,...

What the clinician needs to know about chronic renal disease

Women with normal or only mildly decreased prepreg-nancy renal function (Scr 125 mol l) usually have a successful obstetric outcome, and pregnancy does not appear to adversely affect the course of their disease. There are exceptions with most strongly advising against pregnancy in women with scleroderma and periarteritis nodosa. A few express reservations when the underlying renal disorder is lupus nephropathy, membranoprolif-erative glomerulonephritis, and perhaps IgA and reflux nephropathies. Dialysis has been advocated prophylactically during pregnancy to increase the chances of successful outcome but 'buying time' for fetal maturation in this way is independent of the inexorable declines in renal function ultimately to endstage failure. As extreme prematurity and disturbing, life-threatening maternal problems are commonplace such additional health risks are difficult to justify. Perhaps the aim should be to preserve what little renal function remains and to achieve renal...

What the clinician needs to know about dialysis patients

Dialysis and the prospects for pregnancy and afterwards Despite reduced libido and relative infertility, women on dialysis can conceive and must therefore use contraception if they wish to avoid pregnancy. Although conception is not common (an incidence of 1 in 200 patients has been quoted), its true frequency is unknown because most pregnancies in dialysis patients probably end in early spontaneous abortion. The high therapeutic abortion rate in this group of patients, (although decreased from 40 in Women on dialysis, if they become pregnant, may present for care in advanced pregnancy because it was not suspected by either the patient or her doctors. Irregular menstruation is common in dialysis patients and missed periods are usually ignored. Urine pregnancy tests are unreliable (even if there is any urine available). Ultrasound evaluation is needed to confirm and date pregnancy. DIALYSIS POLICY Some patients have gestational GFR increments despite renal function being insufficient...

Disinfection of Disposable Dialysis Tubing

The rate of continuous cycler PD use in the hospital setting is increasing. Using a cycler frees up the nurse's time. Instead of performing 4-8 manual exchanges per day, the nurse can put up enough dialysate for a day with one connection to initiate the cycle and one disconnection to terminate the cycle. Infection rate decreases due to fewer connect disconnect procedures where touch contamination is possible. The patient can be disconnected for procedures and then reconnected to the same line. Despite these advantages, there is increased cost of continuous cycler PD. The costs are related to the cycler, cycler tubing sets, cycler drain line bag and dialysate solutions. The patient must be able to disconnect and reconnect to the cycler either in between or during PD treatments as needed either in dwell or at the end of drain. Thus the concept of disinfection of disposable dialysis tubes for multiple use 19 .

Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease

Laparoscopic cyst decortication has also been described for the management of symptomatic ADPKD. ADPKD is the most common renal cystic disease, accounting for 9-10 of patients on chronic dialysis (3). The disease typically presents in the third or fourth decade of life and is progressive in nature. Mutations in at least three genes thought to be responsible for the disease have been identified PKD-1, PKD-2, and PKD-3, with a mutation in the PKD-1 gene on the short arm of chromosome 16 Although the primary management goal of ADPKD is control of hypertension and delay in loss of renal function, many patients suffer debilitating pain associated with expansion of the renal cysts. Medical management with non-narcotic analgesics is the recommended initial therapy, although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may potentially exacerbate renal failure. Surgical management is reserved for those patients who fail conservative therapy. Percutaneous cyst aspiration has been used with...

Extra Corporeal Dialysis

Other than Peritoneal Dialysis, electrolytic chloroxidizer is used as well in extra-corporeal dialysis. Because of the fact that the dialytic circuit is considered an extension of the blood circuit of the patient, it is imperative to adopt universal precautions in order to avoid potential transmission of infections. In chemical disinfection, the requirements for dialysis monitors disinfections are being easily recognizable for positive presence or for residual presence before any single use of the dialysis monitor It seems to us that the electrolytic chloroxidizer, better that any other agent, positively answer to these requirements (in particular if used after a descaling agent such as citric acid, oxalic acid or acetic acid). Furthermore, the other advantages described earlier are not satisfied by other industrial hypochlorites. In fact, because of the 1998 European new regulations concerning all medical devices, a disinfectant for dialysis apparatus must be 'CE marked'. All other...

HIV and Kidney Disease

Kidney disease related to AIDS was described as early as 1984 in reports from New York and Florida. Since then, a wide spectrum of acute and chronic renal syndromes has been reported. HIV-associated kidney disease was initially thought to occur late in the course of the infection, but it is now known that the kidneys may be involved in all the stages of HIV disease including acute infection. Renal glomerular and tubular epithelial cells may be directly infected by HIV. Effective therapies for HIV infection and the associated OIs have led to improved patient survival, which in turn has resulted in an increased number of HIV-infected individuals who require renal replacement therapy. Antiretroviral treatment has also resulted in increased reports of drug-related nephrotoxicities. IRIS may also involve the kidneys. Mortality rates for kidney diseases in HIV-infected individuals are increasing, and there is evidence that HAART may slow or prevent pro-gression.Appropriate screening for...

Adult Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease ADPKD

ADPKD is an entity with an incidence of 1 400 to 1 1000 (47). By definition, it is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion caused by mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes, which are responsible for proper encoding of Polycystin and other vital cellular membrane proteins (48). Patients with the disease develop multiple, bilateral renal cysts, which progressively enlarge and eventually destroy remaining areas of renal parenchyma (47). The cysts are thought to derive from an abnormal proliferation of renal tubular cells (48). Co-morbidities associated with ADPKD can be numerous. Up to 50 of patients with ADPKD develop end-stage renal disease that necessitates hemodialysis or renal transplantation by the age of 60 (49). In addition, hypertension can develop in up to 50-70 of patients (50,51). The pathogenesis of hypertension in ADPKD patients is complex, but is thought to be derived from progressive intrarenal ischemia through physical compression by enlarging cysts, thus activating the...

Acute Renal Failure From Diuretic And Nsaid Administration

Acute renal failure has been reported in two healthy volunteers taking indomethacin and triamterene as part of a drug study, in one patient taking this combination, and recently in a man with mild hypertension taking ibuprofen and the combination of hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene who had been strenuously exercising. The latter individual underwent a renal biopsy which showed acute tubular necrosis (ATN). All patients subsequently recovered renal function in a time course consistent with ATN. Why these individuals developed ATN is unclear, but an idiosyncratic reaction to this combination of drugs or potentiation of physiologic reductions in renal blood flow induced by exercise has been proposed. Clinicians and patients should be aware of the potential risks from this drug combination.

External Disinfection of Dialysis Monitors

Disinfection of the hydraulic circuits of the dialysis monitors is not the sole procedure capable of guaranteeing maximum security it is also necessary to carry out a thorough cleansing and disinfection of the external parts of the equipment before starting another dialysis session. A correct procedure includes the operators (clothing, maneuvers, instruments) and the environment (from the dialysis room to the furnishing). Having a correctly disinfected monitor in its internal components, but operating in a contaminated environment is paradoxical. Disinfection of connectors with Amuchine 25 for 10-15 min at the end of each dialysis treatment followed by a generous rinse could be very useful 64 (table 1). In table 1, we report a list of the most important incompatibilities and of the dangerous associations between chemical, disinfecting, descaling, detergent normally utilized in the dialysis centers ( 65 modified). We also report their characteristics and possible toxic effects 66-68 ....

Diabetic Nephropathy

The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy has increased dramatically and is now the first cause of end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy worldwide (72). Although the genetic background is important in determining susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy, exposure to chronic hyperglycemia leading to the subsequent activation of multiple pathogenic pathways appears to be the main initiating factor (2,3,4-6,41). Diabetic nephropathy occurs in up to 30 -40 of diabetic patients. The initial abnormalities include glomerular hyperfiltration and hyperperfusion resulting in microalbu-minuria, increased glomerular basement membrane thickening, and mesangial ECM deposition. These processes are followed by mesangial hypertrophy, diffuse and nodular glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and eventually progressive renal failure (73). Immunohistochemical studies of kidneys from normal and diabetic rats show that glomerular basement membrane, mesangium, podocytes, and...

Biofilm and Dialysis

Several medical devices could be used. Intravascular or urinary catheters represent the most frequent cause of medical device related pathologies, but it is during the phase of chronic kidney replacement therapy that uremic patients are at higher risk. During chronic hemodialysis infections, with related inflammatory events activation, may take place not only from vascular access but also from dialysis apparatus 12 . Even in the absence of standardized collection methods, biofilm has been detected in the hydraulic circuits of hemodialysis machines particularly in low-flux sections, loops and ultrafilters. In this biofilm, the concentrations of bacteria and endotoxins can range from 1.0 X 103 to 1.0 X 106 cells cm2 and 1-10EU cm2, respectively. Several constituents of cell wall of viable or not viable microorganisms can be released into the dialysate, including high molecular weight substances ( 100,000 Da) as well as low molecular weight ones (

Acute Renal Failure

Acute renal failure is characterized by the sudden deterioration of renal function with a rapid decline of GFR to near 5 ml min, often associated (in approximately 75 of cases) with oliguria ( 500 ml of urine day or 20 ml hr). Acute renal failure may result from numerous causes that may be divided into prerenal, renal, and postrenal. Prerenal causes are generally associated with diminished renal perfusion caused by decreased cardiac output, hypovolemia, hypotension, or severe renal vasoconstriction. Postrenal causes involve conditions in which intrarenal or extrarenal urinary passages become obstructed. Our emphasis shall be on renal causes of acute renal failure, especially those resulting from severe and sustained renal hypoperfusion (such as cardiovascular surgery) or those resulting from noxious substances intrinsic nephrotoxins such as those released during hemolysis or rhabdomyolysis or extrinsic nephrotoxins such as certain antibiotics and radiocontrast agents.

Simple Renal Cysts

Reports of laparoscopic cyst decortication for simple renal cysts using both the transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches abound in the literature (34,36,42-48). Among series with at least 10 patients, success rates of (77-100 ) have been reported, although follow-up is short (under 1 yr) in most series (Table 3). In most series, the indication for surgery was persistent pain requiring narcotic analgesics. Most investigators used cyst resolution as the primary outcome parameter and determinant of success however, resolution of pain was reported in greater than 75 of patients in most series (34,36,42,45,48). The need for transfusion was rare and most groups reported minimal blood loss, few complications, and only rare cases required open conversion. Indeed, Fahlenkamp reviewed 139 cases of laparoscopic cyst decortication at four centers and noted only five complications (47). Complications that have been

Chronic Exit Site Care of Healed Exit Site

ESI Exit-site infection PD peritoneal dialysis TI tunnel infection. ESI Exit-site infection PD peritoneal dialysis TI tunnel infection. The mean age, months on PD, method of dialysis (CAPD CCPD), and number of diabetic and non-diabetic patients were not statistically different (table 1). ESI TI rates were lower in the Amuchina group (0.52 episode patient year) in comparison to the povidone group (0.60 episode patient year). No catheter was lost in the Amuchina group. Local irritation and scab formation were more common in the Amuchina group 21 . Piraino B, Bailie GR, Bernardini J, Boeschoten E, Gupta A, Holmes C, et al Peritoneal dialysis- Golper TA, Brier ME, Bunke M Risk factors for peritonitis in long-term peritoneal dialysis The Gadallah MF, Ramdeen G, Mignone J, Patel D, Mitchell L, Tatro S Role of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing postoperative peritonitis in newly placed peritoneal dialysis catheters. Am J Kidney Dis 2000 36 1014-1019. Mupirocin Study Group...

Complications of Central Venous Catheters

Central vein stenosis with occlusion begins at the time of catheter insertion as a result of the trauma of passing a large dialysis catheter through the vein wall. A fibrin sheath forms at the site of insertion progressing down the length of the catheter to the tip. The fibrin is reported to transform into fibrous tissue which stimulates intimal hyperplasia creating the stenosis and possible occlusion. The incidence of central vein stenosis is reported to be between 5 and 17 9 . Symptoms include swelling of the ipsilateral extremity, edema involving the upper chest, head and neck, and the presence of engorged chest wall veins. If severe, the edema can cause decreased mobility and pain. Treatment is balloon angioplasty with or without stent placement.

Central Venous Catheters

Bedside thereby eliminating the need for expensive and often unavailable operating room time. CVCs are essential for those patients requiring emergency dialysis or patients who are described as access failure, having used up the vessels required to create a permanent access. These devices can serve as a bridge for new fistulae waiting maturation or as a backup to the fistulas that require ligation due to high output states or steal syndrome 4 . Not only are these catheters readily available, but the survival rates of the CVCs are reported to be 75 at 1 year and 50 at 2 years, thereby allowing them to become an alternate form of long-term access to the arterio-venous fistula and graft 5, 6 . CVCs are used as a permanent access in children, the elderly, morbidly obese, or in diabetic patients whose blood vessels are not suitable for the creation of a permanent, internal, arterio-venous fistula or graft.


This is a retrospective single-center study based on patients' records and data files. The Hospital Civil de Guadalajara is a large tertiary-care facility that offers dialysis to patients of low social strata and no medical insurance. Since 1989, we have kept an epidemiological surveillance of the episodes of peritonitis in our CAPD program. All patients who started CAPD between July 1st, 1989, and June 30th, 2003 were eligible for the study. From July 12, 1989 to May 12, 1999, both Dianeal (Baxter International, Inc.) and Solucion DPTM (Laboratorios Pisa, Mexico) spike systems were used (conventional group). In this period, the transfer sets were changed using povidone-iodine 10 solution. Also, a connection shield with a sponge soaked with this disinfectant was used at the transfer set's Luer-lock connector and at the spike-bag outlet port connection. From May 13, 1999, the double-bag system (BenYTM, Laboratorios Pisa, Mexico) was introduced in all patients (double-bag group), and...


Chlorhexidine gluconate, a cationic bisbiguanide, was developed in England in the early 1950s and was introduced into the United States in the 1970s. It is a chlorophenol biguanide with a broad antimicrobial spectrum. It is thought that chlorhexidine produces enzymatic reactions within the cell that result in protein denaturation and inactivation of nucleic acids 16 . Chlorhexidine is active against many Gram-positive and to a slightly lesser degree Gram-negative bacteria. Chlorhexidine is supplied in various concentrations of 0.5 with 70 alcohol, 2 , and a 4 detergent. It has greater residual activity than alcohol alone and is not inactivated by the presence of blood or human protein 19, 38-40 . There is minimal absorption through the skin. Anaphylactic reactions with bronchospasms and generalized urticaria are very rare and are associated with use on mucous membranes. In a prospective, randomized trial by Fuchs et al. 41 , three different methods of catheter exit site care were...


They were always convinced of the importance of the scientific research. During their tenure, more than 400 studies have been performed and collected. In the early years, the attention was reserved principally to the treatment of wounds and burns. Later, starting in the 70s, my father was pivotal in addressing Amuchina's attention to the developing world of dialysis. Gratefully, Disinfection by Sodium Hypochlorite Dialysis Applications is dedicated to his memory.


In the late 70s, the introduction of the system suggested by Oreopoulos et al. 1 , i.e. the 'wearable enrolled 2-l plastic bag system', made possible the wide practical clinical application of the new, more efficient, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) schedule proposed by Popovich et al. 2 ,


All dialysis treatments include a certain risk of infection because of the decreased immune defenses of the patients and because of dialytic techniques that increase the potential of microbial contamination. Peritoneal dialysis, and in particular continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), has a higher risk of infections of the peritoneum, but even of the subcutaneous tunnel. These infections are caused by environmental microorganisms principally gram-positives (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus). We tested three active ingredients, electrolytic chloroxidizer, iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate. It is evident that because of the large spectrum of activity, the good effectiveness even at the lowest concentration, coupled with good tolerability (and to the fact of not causing allergic reactions) the electrolytic chloroxidizer appears to be an ideal antiseptic in CAPD. All dialysis treatments include a certain risk of infection because of the decreased immune...


Our study shows that Amuchina is effective in the prevention of exit-site infection during the 14 months of the study, seventeen times more than pH neutral soap. With very similar groups, in age, and time on dialysis, when is compared the Amuchina group with the soap group, the OR 17, shows the safety of using the chloroxidizer, which is statistically significant (p 0.004). There are some items to be observed, such as all children took care of their own exit-sites. Somehow it is surprising that Pseudomonas was our dominant strain isolated,

Preface to the First Edition

The cause of diabetes mellitus is metabolic in origin. However, its major clinical manifestations, which result in most of the morbidity and mortality, are a result of its vascular pathology. In fact, the American Heart Association has recently stated that, from the point of view of cardiovascular medicine, it may be appropriate to say, diabetes is a cardiovascular disease (1). But diabetic vascular disease is not limited to just the macrovasculature. Diabetes mellitus also affects the microcirculation with devastating results, including nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States, while diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of new-onset blindness in working-age Americans. The 24 chapters of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease focus on either clinical or basic aspects of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Part I, Pathophysiology, reviews the mechanisms and risk factors for diabetic...

Studies In Renal Disease

The individual response to treatment with ACE inhibitors is highly variable. 20 Therefore, several studies have been conducted in which the efficacy of ACE inhibitor therapy was studied in relation to ACE genotype in patients with kidney diseases (Table 2). Yoshida et al. 21 studied the response to ACE inhibitor therapy in 21 Japanese patients with IgA-nephropathy, who were treated with lisinopril (10 mg day). After 4 years of therapy, only patients with DD genotype showed a significant reduction in proteinuria. These results were confirmed by Moriyama et al. 22 in patients with various renal diseases and by Ha et al. 23 in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Those results are also consistent with a study performed by Perna et al. 24 Proteinuria, change of glomerular filtration rate, and progression to end-stage renal disease were effectively reduced by treatment with ramipril in patients with the DD genotype. Interestingly, ethnic background may play a very important role as...

Activation of the Polyol Pathway

Polyol pathway, could prevent the some pathological abnormalities in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy (59). However, these results are not supported by data obtained from clinical trials using inhibitors of aldose reductase. A 3-year follow up of diabetic patients treated with Sorbinil (250 mg per day) failed to discern difference in retinopathy (61), although another aldose reductase inhibitor Zenarestat has been shown to improve nerve conduction in diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (62). Based on the largely negative clinical data, a significant role for the activation of the polyol pathway in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications has not been fully established.

Clinical Implication Of Drug Transporters

Japanese and non-Ashkenzai Jews than in other ethnic groups. Patients with this disease have low serum urate levels. They have no renal or systemic diseases except for the development of nephrolithiasis or exercise-induced acute renal failure. Some patients with this disease have defects in URAT1.40-42 The most frequently found mutation W258Stop of URAT1 results in a premature truncated protein, which is devoid of the transporter function due to deficiency in targeting to cell membrane.i0 Several studies have demonstrated that the single i nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or regulatory SNP ( rSNPs) sometimes could result in interindividual variation in mRNA expression of OATs and could potentially regulate the drug PKs in human tissues or animal models.43-45 However, some conflicting data on the effects of polymorphisms on the function of drug transporters such as OAT3 or OAT1 may highlight that some SNP might be substrate or race specific. Another example of the involvement of OATs in...

Basement Membrane Thickening and Extracellular Matrix Expansion

Histologically, increases in type IV and VI collagen, fibronectin and laminin and decreases in proteoglycans are observed in the mesangium of diabetic patients with nephropathy and probably in the vascular endothelium in general (152,153). These effects can be replicated in mesangial cells incubated in increasing glucose levels that were prevented general PKC inhibitors (154-156). Additionally, increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)- P has been implicated in the development of mesangial expansion and basement membrane thickening in diabetes. Because PKC activation can increase the production of ECM and TGF-P, it is not surprising that several reports have shown that PKC inhibitors can also prevent hyperglycemia- or diabetes-induced increases in ECM and TGF-P in mesangial cells or renal glomeruli (98).

Phosphorylation of CFTR Protein by the Catalytic Subunit of Protein Kinase A PKA

After the quantity and purity of CFTR protein in the different fractions eluted from the column are determined (see Subheading 3.2.), best fractions are removed from the dialysis bag and combined into one tube. 3. Removal of PKA after the phosphorylation reaction is required to avoid interference of the kinase with the intrinsic ATPase activity of the pure CFTR protein (18). Thus, to remove PKA, all samples are dialyzed in a Spectra Por dialysis membrane (molecular weight cutoff 50 kDa) overnight at 4 C, against 4 L of buffer D. The next day, buffer D is changed to buffer C and the samples are further dialyzed at 4 C overnight.

Analysis of the Activity of Purified CFTR Protein

In the following paragraphs we discuss our current biochemical methods for the measurement of CFTR ATPase activity as these methods have undergone revisions since the original protocols were published (1,18,20). For example, one major change in the protocol is the requirement of the purified protein to be used fresh (i.e., immediately after the dialysis and without freezing). We observed that the catalytic activity of the purified and reconstituted CFTR protein markedly decreased after freezing and thawing cycles. Another revision of the previous protocol is the shorter time required for the ATPase assay, that is, 2 h rather than 4 h. On the other hand, our assays of CFTR channel have not been substantially revised since our description in Methods in Enzymology (18) and therefore will not be revisited in this chapter.

Physiological Changes

Genitourinary Potential for renal shutdown brought about by hypovolemia or acute renal failure exists. Massive diuresis from fluid returning to the vascular space marks the end of the emergent phase. Patients may develop hemomyoglobinuria because of massive full-thickness burns or electric injury. These injuries cause the release of muscle protein (myoglobin) and hemoglobin, which can clog the renal tubules and cause acute renal failure.

Advanced glycoxidation endproducts interactions

The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), a well-characterized multiligand member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is viewed as an AGE-binding intracellular signal-transducing peptide, which mediates diverse cellular responses rather than as a receptor involved in AGE endocytosis and turnover. Several other distinct ligands have been described for RAGE including amyloid, amphoterin, and S100 calgranulins (5,41,59-62). RAGE is present at low levels in adult animals and humans, but is later upregulated regardless of diabetic vascular disease (62). RAGE expression is increased in sites of increased AGE accumulation such as vasculature, neurons, lymphocytes, and tissue-invading mononuclear phagocytes. In the kidney, RAGE is expressed in glomerular visceral epithelial cells (podocytes) but not in mesangium or glomerular endothelium (59). Diabetic RAGE-transgenic mice exhibit renal vascular changes characteristic of diabetic nephropathy (60). In contrast, brief infusion of...

Special Investigations

Computerized tomography (CT) is more sensitive in demonstrating subcutaneous and retroperitoneal gas and fluid collections, but the use of contrast should be avoided in patients with renal failure. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the most sensitive imaging modality for evaluating pathology in soft tissues, but is expensive and not readily available.

Effect of MnSOD over hiperglycemic memory

Results from Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study indicate that hiperglycemic memory also occurs in human patients (34). It was demonstrated that the effects of conventional and intensive treatments over occurrence and severity of post-study diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy persist until 4 years after Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, in spite of almost identical glycosilated hemoglobin values during the 4-year follow-up period (34). It is interesting that obtaining normoglycemia through pancreatic transplantation is not effective yet in reducing diabetic retinopathy progression (34). Other studies demonstrate that previous glycemic exposure and glycemic level at first visit also have influence over diabetic retinopathy development (34). The lesson from those studies is that achieving the best glycemic control when diabetes is diagnosed seems to be of outstanding importance once HbAlc levels already during the first year of disease are related to...

Gender Ethnicracial And Life Span Considerations

Although a patient of any age can develop a cardiac tamponade, the very young and the elderly have fewer reserves available to cope with such a severe condition. Because trauma is the leading cause of death for individuals in the first 4 decades of life, traumatic tamponade is more common in that age group, whereas the older adult is more likely to have an iatrogenic tamponade. Males have higher rates of unintentional injury than do females in children, cardiac tamponade is more common in boys than in girls with a male-to-female ratio of 7 3. Cardiac tamponade related to human immunodeficiency virus infection is more common in young adults, whereas cardiac tamponade due to malignancy or renal failure is more often seen in elderly patients. Ethnicity and race have no known effect on the risk of cardiac tamponade.

Postoperative Management

The wound should be inspected daily, and the surgeon should have a low threshold for redebridement. A mean of 2.5 debridements per patient is reported in the literature (Baskin et al. 1990 Corman et al. 1999). Bacterial culture results should be checked to make sure that appropriate antibiotic therapy is given. If the patient is in renal failure, aminoglycosides should be avoided and a third- or fourth-generation cephalosporin should be given.

Preoperative Assessment

The diagnosis of a renal cyst is made radiographically either as an incidental finding or during evaluation of symptoms such as flank or abdominal pain, early satiety, hematuria, hypertension, or urinary tract infection. Ultrasound or computed Fig. 1. Nonenhanced CT scan for patient with symptomatic right renal cyst. Fig. 1. Nonenhanced CT scan for patient with symptomatic right renal cyst. tomography (CT) provide the most reliable means of diagnosing renal cysts (Figs. 1 and 2). Intravenous urography (IVU) may suggest the presence of a cyst indirectly by demonstrating distortion of the collecting system, but in general IVU is not a reliable imaging modality for identification of renal cysts. A history of ADPKD, VHL, or tuberous sclerosis may prompt screening radiographic studies for monitoring the development or degeneration of renal cysts (Fig. 3). Likewise,

Management Algorithms Complex Cysts

An attempt to predict the malignant potential of renal cysts has resulted in a classification scheme based on radiographic appearance. The Bosniak classification relies on criteria to categorize cysts into low-, medium-, or high-risk groups (Table 1) (4). In a recent meta-analysis, Bosniak Class II, III, and IV cysts were found to have a risk of 24, 41, and 90 , respectively (5). If the suspicion of malignancy is high, percutaneous aspiration of the cyst fluid for cytological examination may be performed, although the risk of a false-negative cytology remains. A comprehensive meta-analysis by Wolf et al. found an overall sensitivity of cyst aspiration in diagnosing malignancy of 90 , a specificity of 92 , positive predictive value of 96 and negative predictive value of 80 (5). The risk of a false negative aspiration has been estimated at 20 , and the occurrence of tumor seeding along the needle tract has been reported (6-12). Consequently, definitive management of complex cysts has...

Genetic Considerations

Several different genetic loci have been associated with an increased susceptibility to cerebral aneurysm with no phenotypic differences between familial and sporadic forms. In one study of familial inheritance patterns the autosomal recessive pattern was seen in slightly more than half the population and autosomal dominance was seen in just over one-third with about 5 showing incomplete penetrance. The autosomal dominantly transmitted disorder, polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), has been associated with an increased incidence of intracerebral aneurysm.

Symptomatic Simple Cysts

For symptomatic simple renal cysts, an initial attempt at conservative therapy with analgesics should be undertaken. If these measures fail, percutaneous aspiration or sclerosis or surgical decortication may be tried. Cyst aspiration for simple, peripheral cysts can be performed using CT or ultrasound guidance and enables sampling of the cyst fluid for cytology. Unfortunately, simple percutaneous drainage is associated with a high rate of fluid reaccumulation, resulting in the frequent addition of a sclerosing agent (13,14). Multiple compounds have been used as sclerosing agents, including alcohol (15-17), tetracycline (18), minocycline (13), and povodine-iodine (19), with success rates ranging from 75-97 and complication rates from 1.3-20 . As such, percutaneous sclerosis should be the preferred therapy for most simple cysts once the benign nature of the cyst is established. For patients who fail percutaneous cyst aspiration and or sclerotherapy or are unsuitable candidates,...

Labeling Antibody With Longarmed Biotin

The following protocol is for conjugating either IgG or IgM antibodies alternative information appropriate for the two types of antibodies is indicated in certain steps. Conjugation of IgM antibodies using dialysis buffer at pH 7.5, rather than pH 8.4, provides consistently better labeling, perhaps due to overlabeling og the IgM at higher pH. (DMF) Dialysis tubing For discussion of dialysis and a detailed procedure, see Andrew and Titus (1991). 4. Remove unbound biotin by dialysis against final dialysis buffer at 4 C as in step 1.

Conjugation Of Texas Red To Rphycoerythrin To Produce An Energy Transfer Fluorochrome

Ammonium sulfate solution) R-PE dialysis buffer (prepared within 2 days of use see recipe) Conjugation buffers A and B (see recipes) Texas Red-sulfonyl chloride (Molecular Probes) N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) Glycine (ultrapure or ACS grade) Dialysis tubing 1. Dialyze 10 to 50 mg R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) against 500 ml R-PE dialysis buffer with two or three changes over 2 days at 4 C. Allow 4 hr between buffer changes. Protect R-PE from light by covering containers with foil during dialysis and in all subsequent steps when practical. For discussion of dialysis and a detailed procedure, see Andrew and Titus (1991). 14. Pass the resulting solution over a Sephadex G-50 fine column equilibrated with R-PE dialysis buffer, using 25 ml resin per ml solution volume. From step 16 to this point takes 4 hours. The product may be stored up to 15 days at 4 C. To store longer, add sodium azide to 1 final concentration. The sodium azide will require removal by dialysis prior to conjugation.

Advanced Glycation Endproducts AGEs

AGEs and its receptor RAGE (receptor of AGEs) are known to exert a pivotal role in diabetic vascular complication such as retinopathy and nephropathy. Dysfunction of BRB in diabetic retinopathy is also caused by AGEs associated mechanism. First, dysfunction and apoptosis of pericyte, a key cellular component in the formation and maintenance of BRB are suggested as a mechanism of AGEs related BRB breakdown in diabetes. In streptozocin induced diabetic rats, significant deposition of AGEs and expression of RAGE were noted in pericytes of the capillary beds (Stitt et al., 1997). AGEs showed toxicity to pericyte in vitro and this toxic effect is mediated by AGE-RAGE interaction (Yamagishi et al., 1995). ROS generation through AGE-RAGE interaction results in oxidation of DNA, membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent apoptotic pericyte death (Yamagishi et al., 2002b). In addition, AGEs regulate the expression of growth factors from pericyte which participate in the BRB function (Shimizu...

Possible therapeutic approach to diabetic retinopathy through BRB modulation

ACTION I A Clinical Trial In Overt Nephropathy of Type 1 Diabetics, AT1R angiotensin II type 1 receptor, DIRECT Diabetic Retinopathy Cardesartan Trials, ETDRS Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study, DM diabetes mellitus, EUCLID EURODIAB Controlled Trial of Lisinopril in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, FIELD Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes, FU follow-up, ME macular edema, MVL moderate visual loss, PKC-DRS PKC inhibitor diabetic retinopathy study, PKC-DMES PKC inhibitor diabetic macular edema study, sRAGE soluble form of RAGE.

Take Home Messages

The laparoscopic approach to complex renal cysts is controversial and patient candidates for laparoscopic exploration and or decortication require careful selection. For Bosniak II III cysts, aspirated cyst fluid should be sent for cytology and samples of the cyst wall and base should be sent for histopathologic evaluation.

Efficacy in Models of Ischemic Injury

94 , suggesting that the cell-signaling mechanisms described above are required for APC's observed efficacy. Murakami et al. 133 showed in a rat model that APC could attenuate endotoxin-induced pulmonary vascular injury by inhibiting activated leukocytes. Moreover, APC was shown to reduce ischemia or reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats by inhibiting leukocyte activation 134 . Overall, these effects on leukocyte function in vivo are consistent with the mechanistic data of EPCR-dependent signaling and suppression of cell adhesion molecules from endothelial studies (Figure 4.8) 69,70 . APC has also shown efficacy in cardiac ischemic injury models 135 . These data suggest that APC, in addition to its effectiveness in severe sepsis (as discussed below), may be effective in reducing ischemic tissue damage in disorders such as stroke, cardiogenic shock, and acute renal failure.

The Mthfr Gene Product MTHFR

Some of the clinical implications of MTHFR 677C T are summarized in Chapter 2. The implications of MTHFR 677C T and MTHFR 1298A C in cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, venous thrombosis, longevity, neural tube defects, pregnancy, congenital abnormalities, preclampsia, diabetes, cancer, psychiatry, and renal failure are reviewed in refs. 19 and 20.

Clinical Features and Infection

The major clinical manifestations observed in naturally infected cats are chronic oral diseases, chronic upper respiratory tract disease, chronic enteritis and chronic conjunctivitis. Anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, vomiting, fever of unspecified origin and recurrent cystitis were other signs observed in these cats. Abnormal behavioral problems, lymphosarcoma and myeloproliferative disease were also seen in a small proportion of affected cats. Abnormalities in kidney function and pathology have been reported both in naturally and experimentally infected cats. Glomerulosclerosis, fibrosis, tubular degenerative changes and diffuse interstitial infiltration by phagocytes and plasma cells have been observed in naturally infected cats, while glomerular mesangial cell proliferation has been seen in experimentally infected cats. Overall, natural FIV infection causes progressively degenerative immune disorder, neurologic disorders, wasting syndrome and a variety of persistent secondary...

Health Insurance and Medicine in the 1980s

New medical technologies constituted a major factor in health care cost increases and became one driver of cost containment. A number of expensive new technologies had diffused rapidly before evaluation, including dialysis and kidney transplantation in the 1960s, computed tomography in the 1970s, and magnetic resonance imaging in the 1980s (Institute of Medicine 1985 Rettig 1991). This phenomenon drew the attention of health economists, who began to analyze the elements of increasing costs of health care. They concluded that roughly half of the annual increase in costs of health care could be attributed to the effects of new medical technologies (Newhouse 1992 Weisbrod 1991). Insurers were quite aware of these effects and the pressure they exerted on insurance premiums. Major corporations, as purchasers of health care, also became sensitive to new medical technologies as a source of increasing costs for employer-financed health insurance.

Globalization of the food supply and the influence of economic factors on the contamination of food with pathogens

Demand-side factors that support the increased globalization of the world's food supply include increases in income levels and urbanization. These factors are important in that they affect the mix of food purchased and consumed domestically and the composition of global food trade. Different foods have a different mix of potential microbial foodborne illness hazards to consumers and also vary in the risk of contamination. In turn, hazards in the different foods vary in the likelihood and severity of acute illness and chronic complications (e.g. mild illness from Salmonella in cantaloupe, kidney failure from E. coli 0157 H7 in ground beef). Additionally, wealthier nations tend to demand safer food.

Use Of Diuretics In Nephrotic Syndrome

The subset of patients with chronic renal disease who have nephrotic syndrome provide an additional challenge to effective diuretic therapy. In patients with this condition blunted responses to diuretics are frequently observed early in the course of the disease when GFRs are normal or only modestly reduced. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic mechanisms account for diuretic resistance in nephrotic syndrome. Most pharmacokinetic studies have focused on the effect of reductions in serum albumin on delivery of loop diuretic to the kidney. Because loop diuretics are so highly protein bound ( 90 ), reductions in serum albumin result in significant increases in the amount of free drug and the resultant increase in volume of drug distribution. Total plasma clearance of furosemide has also been reported to be increased in some studies but this may reflect the increase in nonrenal clearance of that agent reported with reduced renal function. Thus, as noted by Keller and associates, and...

Pathology and Histopathology

Autopsy specimens from HFRS patients show tubular damage in the kidneys as well as hemorrhagic necrosis in the renal medullary junctional zone, cardiac right atrium and anterior pituitary. Histo-pathological changes in the kidney correlate with severity and clinical staging of disease, beginning with congested subcortical medullary vessels in late febrile and hypotensive phases. Tubular damage progresses and late stage autopsies often reveal swollen kidneys with a hemorrhagic, congested medulla under a pale cortex. Tubular lesions, which include patterning and differentiation of epithelium with loss of the brush border and epithelial cell vacuolization, have been reported for both severe and mild HFRS. In the majority of HFRS patients studied between days 5 and 30 of disease, it was possible to identify cytoplasmic foci of viral glycoproteins in tubular epithelial cells and in sloughed cells displaying tubular degenerative changes. It was suggested that direct viral invasion of renal...

Renal Transport Of Cationic Diuretics

In summary, secretion of diuretics into the lumen of the proximal tubule is an essential step for the action of these agents. It is this event that allows loop diuretics to maintain potency in the setting of reductions in glomerular filtration rate. Competitive inhibition for transport between diuretics and other endogenous and exogenous compounds is an important component of diuretic resistance in a number of circumstances, especially in chronic renal failure. For diuretics with a high affinity for the transporters, increasing the diuretic dose may improve tubule secretion and efficacy.

Clinical manifestation

Occult malignancy-associated spontaneous gas gangrene no obvious preceding event gas gangrene presents with sudden onset of pain, with low-grade fever and apathetic mental status local swelling and serosan-guineous exudate appear soon after onset of pain skin turns to a bronze color, then progresses to a blue-black color with hem-orrhagic bullae entire region sometimes becomes markedly edematous within hours wound may be nonodorous or have a sweet mousy odor crepitus following gas production pain and tenderness to palpation disproportionate to wound appearance late signs hypotension, renal failure, and a paradoxical heightening of mental acuity

Bilateral Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction

The classic presentation of bilateral upper urinary tract obstruction often differs clinically when compared to unilateral obstruction. Bilateral upper urinary obstruction most commonly occurs on a more chronic basis, related to an extrinsic process that progresses slowly over time. In this scenario, signs and symptoms directly related to the extrinsic process often prompt the workup which ultimately leads to the diagnosis of bilateral obstruction. When bilateral chronic upper urinary tract obstruction progresses to the point of causing symptoms, manifestations of renal failure are also commonplace. A common presentation for acute bilateral upper urinary obstruction is related to bilateral obstructing ureteral or UPJ stones. The tip-off to this diagnosis can be the development of bilateral flank pain in the setting of anuria however, more commonly the bilateral stones will be only partially obstructing and the patient will maintain an adequate urine output. Urgent management of...

Endocrine Functions Of The Kidney

Erythropoietin is interesting because it is a growth factor (or cytokine) that behaves like a hormone. Erythropoietin is a 34-kDa glycoprotein that is secreted by interstitial cells in the kidney, and its synthesis and release is increased by a low hematocrit or a fall in blood oxygen carriage. Erythropoietin acts on erythroid progenitor cells in bone marrow as a colony-stimulating factor and increases the production of red blood cells. As might be expected, renal failure is accompanied by anemia as one of its many side effects. However, the fall in erythropoietin production is not the only reason for the anemia. Disseminated tissue hemorrhaging and a decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cell production accompany uremia. Nevertheless, the anemia of renal

Concurrent Medical Evaluations

Before any required therapeutic procedures, all patients should undergo a preoperative medical examination by colleagues in primary care medicine and or anesthesiology. Patients with renal failure should also be evaluated by nephrology. In relatively rare instances, a patient's overall medical condition may require optimization before proceeding with the required therapeutic interventions. In rare instances, this may include the use of hemodialysis before proceeding with relief of upper urinary obstruction. Acutely ill patients should be appropriately monitored in the hospital setting. In fact, those patients deemed too unstable for therapeutic intervention should have their clinical situation optimized in the intensive care unit setting.

Effect of Supplementation on Vitamin E Metabolism and Excretion

Urinary excretion appears to be an important route for the CEHC metabolites 40 . Therefore, an impaired renal function model is likely to be a useful tool with which to investigate tocopherol metabolism. Confirming this, patients with kidney dysfunction have been shown to have an exponential increase in a- and y-CEHC concentrations compared with healthy subjects and haemodialysis appears to lead to only a short term correction of this response 37-39 . As expected in these patients, supplementation with a-tocopherol increases plasma a- and y-CEHC concentrations while y-tocopherol supplementation increases y-CEHC concentrations. These accumulations occur as a result of the decreased renal clearance, hence, highlighting the importance of urinary excretion in tocopherol metabolism.

Acute Urologic Management

The acute treatment of upper urinary tract obstruction is to re-establish urinary drainage. The timing (immediate vs delayed), approach (endoscopic, percutaneous, open, laparoscopic), and goals of treatment (temporizing vs definitive) depend heavily on the diagnostic workup. When safe and possible, an effort should be made to provide definitive treatment at the same time as urinary drainage is established. In cases of renal failure, concurrent infection, or complete obstruction, however, the only goal of treatment should be urgent decompression of the blocked upper tract.

Water Reabsorption Driven By Solute Reabsorption

Perhaps the most frequently administered intravenous fluid is isotonic saline (0.9 0.9 g of NaCl dL). Isotonic saline is used as a replacement for extracellular salt and water that may be depleted by dehydration, or when a patient is not eating and drinking normally. Thus, unless there is reason to suspect that a patient is actually volume overloaded, which may occur with congestive heart failure or liver or kidney failure, ample isotonic saline is given as a means of maintaining normal extracellular fluid volume. If the kidneys are operating normally, it is difficult to expand the extracellular fluid volume significantly because the kidney increases its excretion of salt and water to match the increased input. Most of this adaptation occurs quickly and is due to decreased salt and water reabsorption in the proximal tubule.

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

When bilateral complete urinary obstruction is relieved, the patient usually has massive polyuria and excessive natriuresis (sodium loss in the urine). In general, the physician will prescribe the replacement of two-thirds of the loss of urinary volume per day to be replaced by salt-containing intravenous solutions. Further expansion of the extracellular volume may sustain the diuresis. With impaired renal function, a diet low in sodium, potassium, and protein is often prescribed. Preoperative diet restrictions are sometimes used to limit the progression of renal failure before surgical removal of the obstruction.

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

At levels above 13 mg dL, renal failure and soft tissue calcification may occur. Hypercal-cemic crisis exists when the serum level reaches 15 mg dL. Serious cardiac dysrhythmias and hypokalemia can result as the body wastes potassium in preference to calcium. Hypercalcemia at this level can cause coma and cardiac arrest. It is considered to be a serious electrolyte imbalance, with a mortality rate as high as 50 when not treated quickly. Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic emergency, and approximately 10 to 20 of patients with cancer develop it at some point during their disease. Prognosis of hypercalcemia associated with malignancy is also poor, with a 1-year survival rate of 10 to 30 .

Chronic Diuretic Therapy for Heart Failure [3033

Bowel wall edema may impair the gastrointestinal absorption of diuretics and some diuretic resistance which occurs in patients with heart failure has been attributed to this mechanism. More recent studies have shown that patients with congestive heart failure and severe peripheral edema who presumably also have GI edema, absorb normal quantities of orally administered loop diuretics. However, the time course of absorption is altered 27 . Heart failure delays and reduces peak blood levels, although the area under the plasma drug concentration vs time curve (representing the total quantity of absorbed diuretic) is not reduced i.e., the drug is absorbed more slowly. This may affect the efficacy of loop diuretics when they are used to treat patients with advanced renal failure as well as CHF and high peak blood levels are required for adequate secretion.

Years of Life Gained per 100000 Persons Screened Thousands

The model performed by the Office of Technology Assessment of the Unites States Congress (49) studied the cost-effectiveness of FOBT, FS, DCBE and colonoscopy, both individually and in combination, for patients aged 50-85 yr (Fig. 9). Although it accounted for years of life lost as a result of detection and treatment of cancer, it did not account for imperfect compliance. The most striking finding of this study is that all strategies cost less than 20,000 per year of life saved. This is well within the commonly accepted range (

Anticipatory Grieving

Related to (Specify perceived potential loss of child by parents perceived potential loss of physiopsychosocial well-being by child.) Defining Characteristics (Specify expression of distress of potential loss, inevitable kidney failure, kidney dialysis, premature death of child.) Goal Parents and child will begin to work through the grief process by (date and time to evaluate). Outcome Criteria

Prevention and Control

Although neutralizing antibody titers in human convalescent sera can, if at all, only barely be detected in laboratory tests, there are anecdotal case reports suggesting the potential benefit of passive immunization against Ebola virus infection. Furthermore, recent reports from the 1995 outbreak in Zaire about effective treatment of acutely ill patients with whole blood transfusions from convalescent donors suggest that quantities of antibodies, predicted to be marginally effective in laboratory tests, may still be protective. There is experimental evidence that active immunization employing killed virus, recombinant expressed glycoprotein, and recombinant gene 4 (GP)-DNA (DNA vaccination) is partially successful in animals, suggesting that these may be feasible strategies to elicit protective immunity. At present, however, vaccines for human application are not available. A specific chemotherapeutic treatment is not available to date, but knowledge of the expected clinical course...

General and Salt Restriction

Treatment of nephrotic edema should be directed principally at the underlying glomerular process whenever possible. For example, the most effective treatment for the salt retention and edema produced by minimal change nephropathy is a glucocorticoid induced remission. Similarly, the best treatment for edema associated with a toxin or drug induced nephropathy, is elimination of the inciting agent. However, very often the glomerular process cannot be promptly or completely corrected. Weeks or months of treatment may be required to induce a clinical response. Many forms of nephrotic syndrome cannot be effectively treated. In some of these patients symptomatic treatment of the salt retention, ECF expansion, and edema may become necessary.

Diseases and Host Range

Probably all coronaviruses replicate in epithelial cells of the respiratory and or enteric tracts, though not necessarily producing clinical damage at those sites. Avian 1BV not only causes respiratory disease but can also damage gonads in both females and males, and causes serious kidney disease (dependent on the strain of virus, and to some extent on the breed of chicken). 1BV is able to

Control of fluid balance

Strict monitoring of input and output is essential in the sick pre-eclamptic patient. A combination of the reduced intravascular volume, leaking capillaries and low albumin make women prone to pulmonary oedema. Renal failure is a rare complication of pre-eclampsia but should be considered when there has been inadequate transfusion or profound hypotension following post-partum bleeding, as there is reduced intravascular volume. Oliguria is relatively common, and strict monitoring should be considered rather than aggressive blind fluid replacement. Administration of intravenous fluid in the oliguric patient must be done with caution. Most protocols will limit fluid intake to approximately 1 ml kg h. CVP monitoring and Foley catheter insertion should be used whenever possible. Repetitive fluid challenges should be avoided in the absence of invasive monitoring. Should the CVP be high ( 8 mmHg) with persistent oliguria then a dopamine infusion can be considered (1 kg min.) Haemodialysis or...

The Role Of Genetic Manipulation In Bioseparations

The recombinant product can take various forms in the host organism and this can influence the downstream purification process. Many are synthesised in a soluble form in the cell cytoplasm. The crude cell extract which contains these products will also contain all the normal cell components in a complex mixture. As stated above, the purification problems can be minimised if the desired product is the major component in the mixture. In some cases, particularly when proteins are cloned into foreign hosts, or are expressed in high levels, the recombinant product forms an intracellular insoluble aggregate (inclusion bodies) (Kane & Hartley, 1988). This is due to the specific association of partially folded recombinant peptide chains produced during the folding process (Mitraki & King 1989). Inclusion bodies differ from other insoluble cell components in size and density and can therefore be isolated relatively easily by differential centrifugation (Taylor et al 1986). However, the...

What the clinician needs to know about normal pregnancy

An Scr of 80 pmol l and urea of 6 mmol l, which are acceptable when non-pregnant, are suspect in pregnancy. Caution is needed, however, when assessing kidney function by Scr alone, especially if some decline in GFR has already accrued because creatinine is both filtered and secreted, with the creatinine clearance inulin clearance (C cr Cinulin) ratio usually 1.1-1.2. With the progression of renal dysfunction a greater proportion of urinary creatinine is via secretion with the clearance ratio attaining 1.4-1.6 when Scr 125 pmol l. Thus, GFR could be considerably overestimated.

Penicillia mycotoxins

About 40 years ago, a disease in swine and cattle was found to be due to consuming moldy corn. Swine died within a day after consuming about 0.5 lb of moldy corn (LD50 6.6 mg kg of body weight, usually producing liver and kidney damage). The formation of ochratoxin A by the microflora Aspergillus ochraceus is favored by humid conditions and moderate temperature and can be found in cereals. The mycotoxin has been associated with Balkan nephropathy in Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia, particularly in foods made from grains harvested after heavy rainfall. It can be found in grains, soybeans, peanuts, and cheese. Several years ago, the mycotoxin was found in pigs from Denmark, which carried over in tissues of bacon exported to various countries. The compound (LD50 of 20 to 50 mg kg) exhibits nephrotoxicity in birds, fish, and mammals and is teratogenic in rats and chicken. Ochratoxin also targets the central nervous system. As noted in Figure 13.4, the structures of several ochratoxin A...

Fluorescence Measurements

Fluorescence studies with nonfluorescent drugs can also give useful information.72 Both albumin and AAG have an intrinsic fluorescence that is quenched upon drug binding. Human albumin contains a solitary tryptophan residue that alone is responsible for its ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence this greatly enhances the utility of spectroscopy for studying its binding to drugs. A high-throughput method based on this principle has been described that can detect binding of drugs to albumin and AAG results with this method were rank-order similar to those from equilibrium dialysis.73 Intrinsic fluorescence of albumin and AAG also provide an avenue to assess the kinetics of binding. The extent of fluorescence quenching of the binding protein will be dependent on concentration of the added binding drug. Thus, the quench curve will provide an estimate of the on-rate this, in conjunction with the equilibrium binding constant, will give a measure of the off-rate of the drug from the binding protein....

Pdl Pacher md phd and Csaba Szabo md phd

Macro- and microvascular disease are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetic vascular dysfunction is a major clinical problem, which underlies the development of various severe complications including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and increase the risk of stroke, hypertension, and myocardial infarction (MI). Hyperglycemic episodes, which complicate even well-controlled cases of diabetes, are closely associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress, which can trigger the development of cardiovascular disease. Recently, emerging experimental and clinical evidence indicates that high-circulating glucose in DM is able to induce oxidative and nitrosative stress in the cardiovascular system, with the concomitant activation of an abundant nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) poly-merase-1 (PARP) . This process results in acute loss of the ability of the endothelium to generate nitric oxide (NO endothelial dysfunction) and also...

Leading Causes of Death

Figure 10.2 Age-specific acceleration of mortality by cause of death. Data averaged for the years 1999 and 2000 for non-Hispanic white males in the United States from statistics distributed by the National Center for Health Statistics http nchs , Worktable Orig291. The causes of mortality are based on the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision http The diseases are Heart for diseases of the heart CerVas for cerebrovascular diseases Accid for accidents (unintentional injuries) Infl for influenza and pneumonia Suic for intentional self-harm (suicide) Nephr for nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Sept for septicemia Canc for malignant neoplasms ChrRsp for chronic lower respiratory diseases Liver for chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis Diab for diabetes mellitus and Alzh for Alzheimer's disease. From Frank (2004a). Figure 10.2 Age-specific acceleration of mortality by cause of death. Data averaged for the years 1999 and 2000 for non-Hispanic white...

Multiple Organ Syndrome

Of MODS depends somewhat on its cause but often begins with pulmonary failure 2 to 3 days after surgery, followed, in order, by hepatic failure, stress-induced gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, and renal failure. Mortality rates are linearly related to the number of failed organ systems. Patients with two or more organ systems involved have a mortality rate of approximately 75 , and patients with four organ systems involved have a 100 mortality rate.

Systemic disorders causing secondary amenorrhoea

Some diseases affect gonadal function directly. Women with chronic renal failure have a discordantly elevated LH 42 , possibly as a consequence of impaired clearance 43 . Prolactin is also elevated in these women, due to failure of the normal inhibition by dopamine. Liver disease affects the level of circulating sex hormone binding globulin, and thus hormone levels, thereby disrupting the normal feedback mechanisms. Metabolism of various hormones including testosterone, are also liver dependent both menstruation and fertility return after liver transplantation 44 .

Chlorine and Chlorine Compounds

Chlorine compounds can be used as low-level disinfectants for noncritical environmental surfaces. However, they can be used as intermediate-level and high-level disinfectants, only on selected items whose structural materials are not altered by chlorine, such as hydrotherapy tanks used for patients who have damaged skin, dialysis equipment, dental equipment, tonometers, and cardiopulmonary training manikins. Also, they are very useful for decontamination of blood spillage before cleaning 11 .

Efficacy of Diuretics

Chronic renal failure poses some significant challenges to therapy with diuretic agents. First, renal blood flow is reduced and, therefore, the delivery of diuretics to the kidneys may be reduced. Second, the number of nephrons is diminished and, consequently, the amount of diuretic actually secreted declines. This problem is compounded by the presence, in the circulation of chronic renal failure patients, of organic acids which compete with diuretics for the tubular secretory sites. Finally, the lower filtered load of sodium severely limits the absolute amount of sodium excreted under the influence of diuretics even though, in fractional terms, the degree of Na+ diuresis may be actually quite substantial. To illustrate, let us return to the normal subject discussed earlier, with a GFR of 100 ml min, and the patient with chronic renal failure, whose GFR is 10 ml min. These two individuals are filtering Na+ at a rate of 15 and 1.5 mEq min, respectively. If they were both given a...

Management of Vascular Congestion

As discussed under Management of Hypertension (above) loop diuretics such as furosemide, bumetanide, and torasemide are useful in controlling vascular congestion and hypertension in patients with chronic renal failure, when used alone or in combination with a thiazide diuretic, especially metolazone. Comparing the daily urinary losses of electrolytes with the weight lost by individual patients, it was observed that the patients lost more weight than could be accounted for by the urinary fluid losses. This discrepancy raises the interesting possibility that the fluid balance may have been achieved by an additional extrarenal route such as the gastrointestinal tract 49 .

Pathology Clinical Features and Pathogenesis

KHV is highly contagious, has an incubation period of 2-3 days, and exhibits mortality rates of 80-100 . Clinical signs include increased mucus production, pale patches on the skin and gills, labored breathing, and swelling and then necrosis of the gill filaments. Pathological lesions are evident primarily in the gills but may be present in the kidney, skin, liver, spleen, brain, and gastrointestinal tract. Gill disease is characterized by hyperpla-sia and then fusion of secondary lamellae, inflammation of the gill rakers, and subsequent necrosis. Kidney disease, if present, is characterized by a peritubular and interstitial nephritis. Virus particles are present in affected organs. The routes of infection and shedding are not known, though the gills and skin are obvious candidates, and cohabitation is an effective means of transmitting the disease. Depending on water temperature, virus may survive for periods of days to weeks. Immunohistochemistry and PCR analyses have demonstrated...

Potassium Homeostasis

The modest natriuresis induced by diuretics in chronic renal failure patients is often accompanied by a similarly modest kaliuresis. However, a significant drop in serum potassium concentration has been reported in anuric patients maintained by chronic hemodialysis after oral chlorothiazide administration (15 mg kg) 14 . These observations point to an extrarenal action which may prove useful in the management of the hyperkalemia that is not infrequently encountered in these patients. The use of the potassium-sparing diuretics in patients with compromised renal function is problematic. In the first place, these drugs appear to be capable of blocking extrarenal sites of K+ disposition and inducing hyperkalemia as has been demonstrated with spironolactone 30 . Second, the actions of these drugs in patients with chronic renal failure may be prolonged because of the compromised renal excretion of amiloride and of triamterine and its active metabolites 21, 22 ,

Michael T Johnstone md and Eli V Gelfand md

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major source of morbidity in the United States, affecting between 10 and 15 million people (1). The cause of much of this morbidity and mortality is vascular disease, including both atherosclerosis and microangiopathy (2-5). As discussed elsewhere in this text, atherosclerosis occurs earlier in diabetics than nondiabetics, its severity is often greater, and its distribution is more diffuse (6,7). Vascular disease in diabetics affects not only large vessels but microvasculature as well, resulting in both diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy (8,9).

Transplantation Delayed Graft Function

Transplantation of cadaveric kidneys is beset with a significant problem with the potential of adversely affecting transplant outcome. Difficulties derive from the periods of warm and cold ischemia that precede transplantation. The incidence of delayed graft function (defined as failure of the graft to function promptly following transplantation), usually requiring dialysis, varies widely. It may be encountered in as few as 10 of patients in some programs, but in as many as 50 of patients in others. When the effects of delayed graft function are analyzed it can be shown that it usually reduces 1-year graft survival by 10 or more and reduces the half-life of the graft by nearly 3 years. A number of regimens designed to ensure prompt graft function have been employed by various organ harvesting and transplant teams, usually involving the use of vasodilators such as calcium channel blockers, blood volume expanders such as saline solutions and hyperoncotic albumin, and diuretics such as...

Radiocontrastinduced Nephrotoxicity

Radiocontrast-induced nephropathy is a leading cause of hospital-acquired acute renal failure (ARF) with an incidence ranging from 2 to 10 depending on the population's risk factors. Risk factors include preexistent volume depletion, age, underlying chronic renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, proteinuria, and the amount of the radiocontrast dye used. The pathogenesis of ARF in this setting is probably related to decreased renal blood flow and medullary ischemia resulting from an imbalance of vasodilative and vasoconstrictive factors 14 . Radiocontrast agents may also be directly toxic to the renal tubule epithelium. This form of ARF is somewhat unique because preexisting risk factors can be identified and the timing and dose of dye can be controlled. Measures which have been proposed to prevent or reduce the severity of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity include volume expansion and the administration of furose-mide, mannitol, calcium channel blockers, dopamine, atrial natriuretic...

Surgical Kidney Ureter and Major Bladder Procedures for Nonneopolycystic with CC

Although inherited polycystic diseases are not the only types of cystic diseases of the kidney, all types are a major contributor to chronic renal failure. Infantile autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (RPK) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are two types of inherited polycystic kidney disease. Infantile (RPK) disease affects both kidneys, leads to renal failure, and causes biliary dilation and fibrosis in the liver. The basic pathology of cyst development is a weakening of the basement membrane, which possibly is caused by an abnormality of the extracellular connective tissue cells. Adult-onset disease (ADPKD) is a bilateral disorder, although it may have asymmetrical progression with multiple expanding cysts that Polycystic Kidney Disease 747 destroy renal function. Renal deterioration eventually leads to uremia, chronic renal failure, and the need for chronic renal dialysis.

Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism and Refractory Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

In patients with chronic renal failure, secondary hyperparathyroidism tends to last longer and to be more severe than in patients with other hypocalcemic disorders, such as dietary vitamin D deficiency. Eventually, refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism can develop into a tertiary hyperparathyroidism characterized by oversecretion of PTH and hypercalcemia. Factors that lead to stimulation of the parathyroid glands in uremia are hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) downregulation (37). Mild secondary hyperparathyroidism is reversible when these are corrected. These patients generally have PTH levels above 150-200 pg mL, whereas patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism have PTH levels above 1500 pg mL. That is rarely seen today, but the risk is related to duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis. PTH-induced hypercalcemia is commonly seen postoperatively after successful renal transplantation, particularly in...

Ezio Carboni 1 Introduction

Microdialysis technique coupled with electrochemical detection (ED) is a relatively new method that allows detection of neurotransmitters and other substances from brain and other tissues. It is based on the insertion of a dialysis probe in a specific area and perfusing it with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which, passing in a chamber delimited by the dialysis fiber, becomes enriched with small molecular weight substances diffusing into the fiber because of their concentration gradient. Substances recovered can be assayed by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to evaluate their concentration in the dialysate, that is closely related to their extracellular concentration in the area investigated. After recovery from surgery, therefore, the effects of drugs or other treatments on the assayed substance can be evaluated in freely moving animals (1).

Diureticinduced Hyperkalemia

Thus, all three of the potassium-sparing diuretics qualitatively produce similar effects on the composition of the urine. The effects of spironolactone and the sodium channel blockers are additive since they act by distinct mechanisms. It should be noted that all three of these agents are weakly natriuretic because the bulk of filtered Na is reabsorbed in more upstream nephron segments. The development of hyperkalemia is a potentially lethal complication of these drugs. This risk is dose dependent and increases in patients with renal failure or those taking potassium supplements. Special caution should be used when these drugs are coadministered with other agents that interfere with the

Economic Considerations

The basic equipment required to start a microdialysis laboratory equipped with ED includes a stock of dialysis fibers that can be obtained from a hospital supplier of artificial kidneys at modest cost and may last for 1-2 yr. To implant probes in the brain it is essential to purchase a stereotaxic apparatus, that although expensive (about 5000), if well kept, lasts for many years. A perfusion pump is necessary to complete the essential microdialysis equipment those in the market range 2000-5000 but are precise and durable. To analyze samples a basic HPLC system is necessary. It includes a pump, a column, detectors with appropriate electrodes, and a handling data system that can cost up to 15,000-20,000 (see Note 11).

DescriptionSurgical Other Kidney and Urinary Tract Operating Room Procedures

Acute renal failure (ARF) is the abrupt deterioration of renal function that results in the accumulation of fluids, electrolytes, and metabolic waste products. It is usually accompanied by a marked decrease in urinary output. Although ARF is often reversible, if it is ignored or inappropriately treated, it can lead to irreversible kidney damage and chronic renal failure. Two types of ARF occur community- and hospital-acquired. Community-acquired ARF is diagnosed in about 1 of hospital admissions at the time of initial assessment. In comparison, hospital-acquired ARF occurs in up to 4 of hospital admissions and 20 of critical care admissions. There are many reasons for this increased incidence of hospital-acquired ARF, and they include an aging population, the use of nephrotoxic medications, and increasing severity of illness in hospitalized patients. Approximately 70 of patients develop oliguric ARF with a urine output 500 mL day. The other 30 of patients never develop oliguria and...

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