Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

Keto Resource

Many people always desire to lose weight within a short period. Dieting is easy the first few days, but without a plan, one is subjected to peer pressure and can easily fall back on their program. Gaining weight is very easy for most people, but losing it is another task that needs patience as it does not happen overnight. The Keto 28 day challenge works towards helping individuals achieve their dreams by losing weight on shorter duration of time as compared to other diet plans. It focuses on making its users lose weight and become lighter. The reason why most people gain more weight even when they are on a new diet is the lack of a plan. Lacking a diet plan makes one to make bad choices when choosing the type of food to eat and the quantities that they take. It's time to take the 28 day Keto challenge to get back in shape and have that good and light body that you have always desired. The plan also makes an individual sleep better, wake up more rested, improve hair growth, and have more energy as compared to the earlier days without Keto. Read more...

Keto Resource Summary


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I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

The Bottom Line on Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates sugars and starches are the main source of fuel for our bodies. When we choose carbohydrate-rich foods, our best bets are fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes, because these foods are also rich sources of health-promoting vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, and fiber. But like all calories, extra calories from carbohydrates beyond those we need to replenish the energy we burn are converted to fat and stored in our fat cells. Non-caloric sweeteners seem to be a safe alternative to sugar for most people, but the foods that contain them are often nutritionally empty and their use in home cooking is limited. The so-called natural sweeteners are no better for you than sugar.

Anaerobic Degradation of Carbohydrates in Wastewater

Carbohydrates are homo- or heteropolymers of hexoses, pentoses, or sugar derivatives, which occur in soluble form or as particles, forming grains or fibers of various sizes. In some plants, starch forms grains up to 1 mm in diameter, which is 1000 times the diameter of bacteria. Starch metabolism by bacteria requires hydrolytic cleavage by amylases to form soluble monomers or dimers, since only soluble substrates can be taken up and metabolized.

Biochemical Aspects Of Ketosis

Dietary fats and fatty acids are ordinarily broken down by liver mitochondrial P-oxidation into two-carbon acetyl-CoA molecules. Acetyl-CoA is ordinarily funneled into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with eventual production of energy via ATP generation, which is used for biosynthesis and other cellular functions. Ketone production under such normal circumstances is minimal. However, under conditions of fasting, starvation, or provision of high amounts of fat but little carbohydrate (i.e., the ketogenic diet), ketone production is accelerated. Acetyl-CoA cannot enter the TCA cycle because of low availability of key intermediates, the rate-limiting substrate oxaloacetate, and the rate-limiting enzyme a-ketoglutarate, which are diverted to produce glucose via gluco-neogenesis. Instead, acetyl-CoA molecules are used to synthesize the four-carbon ketone bodies p-hydroxybutyrate (P-OHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc). Therefore, both fasting and the KD produce ketosis (i.e., elevated blood...

Anticonvulsant Mechanisms Of The Ketogenic Diet 41 Mechanistic Criteria

Effect of dietary manipulation on electroconvulsive threshold in adult rats. Ordinate Voltage needed to produce a minimal convulsion (brief, massive flexion spasm with forelimb and jaw clonus lasting 1-3 s). Abscissa Experimental day. Animals received standard rat chow until day 0 (arrow), followed by ketogenic diet for 39 d, high carbohydrate diet for 9 d, and, finally, standard rat chow again. The threshold for a minimal convulsion remains constant at about 70 V until about 12 d on the ketogenic diet the threshold then rises steadily to a plateau. After changing to the high carbohydrate diet, minimal seizure threshold falls and more intense ( maximal ) seizures occur at the same stimulus intensity that previously produced minimal convulsions. Mean body weights are also plotted. (Reproduced with permission from Appleton & DeVivo, 1974.) Fig. 1. Effect of dietary manipulation on electroconvulsive threshold in adult rats. Ordinate Voltage needed to produce a minimal convulsion...

Chronic Effects of the Ketogenic Diet

Kainic-acid-treated rats normally display hyperexcitable hippocampal circuitry (Tauck & Nadler, 1985 Cronin & Dudek, 1988 Mathern et al., 1997). To determine whether the KD could ameliorate KA-induced hyperexcitability changes, we examined hippocampal slices obtained from KA-treated rats on normal and ketogenic diets. Significantly fewer CA1 population spikes were evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation in slices from KD-fed rats than from controls, suggesting that this neuronal network is less excitable after KD treatment (Stafstrom et al., 1999b). Because slices were perfused in normal artificial cerebrospinal fluid (without ketones), this reduction in excitability is independent of ketosis, reflecting a chronic stabilizing effect of the KD. It is tempting to speculate that such long-term effects may involve membrane lipid alterations.

Ketones And The Ketogenic Diet

*Ketogenic diets are described by the ratio of foods with ketogenic potential (K) versus antiketogenic potential (AK), approximated by the formula K AK F + 0.5P C + 0.1F + 0.6P , where F, P, and C are amounts, by weight, of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. Practically, KDs are usually denoted as 3 1 or 4 1. K AK 1.5 1 is considered necessary to produce ketosis. The equation adapted from Withrow, 1980. provided mainly in the forms of heavy cream and butter, contributes about 90 of the calories. The fats in the classic KD consist of a mixture of animal and plant-derived fats fatty acids of varying chain lengths are likely to be included, but no attempt is made to specify fat type or chain length. Therefore, the classic KD likely contains an abundance of saturated fatty acids and, possibly, a relative dearth of long-chain PUFAs as discussed, this is of interest because of the roles of PUFAs in brain development and modulation of excitability. There have been attempts to formulate a KD...

Classes of Carbohydrates

If healthy population groups around the world are studied, there are relatively few illustrations of toxic effects associated with carbohydrate intakes. If sufficient food is available, population groups whose diets consist mostly of carbohydrates do not suffer adverse effects. Some short-term effects such as intestinal problems and diarrhea can be attributed to marked changes in the amount or form of ingested carbohydrate, e.g., high-fiber foods. On the other hand, there are subpopulations prone to significant adverse effects associated with carbohydrates, which include individuals with abnormal tolerances or intolerances (glucose, lactose). Milk sugar intolerance is prevalent in populations from the Far and Middle East and Africa. These individuals have difficulty digesting lactose, and, when they do ingest lactose, they experience gastric distress, cramping, and diarrhea. The intolerance is because such individuals lack the enzyme lactase to break down lactose to monosaccharides...


Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and structural materials such as cellulose. All have the empirical chemical formula (CH2O)n. For example, glucose is C6H12O6, so n is 6. Glyceraldehyde is one of the simplest carbohydrates, with an n of 3. The large number of hydroxide groups on carbohydrates renders them hydrophilic. Carbohydrates are classified into several groups Monosaccharides are the simplest and are building blocks for the others. They have relatively low molar masses, and n in the formula can range from 3 to 9. Monosaccharides can form chains, called polymers, producing disacchar-ides, which are formed from pairs of monosaccharides, or the long-chain polysaccharides, which can have molar masses as high as 1 million. Large molecules such as polysaccharides, proteins, or DNA are called macromolecules.

Eat Carbohydrates

For athletes with diabetes, it is recommended that 55 to 60 percent of the total daily kilocalories should be carbohydrates. Endurance athletes (such as long-distance runners or cyclists) should consider eating a carbohydrate-rich meal (1 to 2 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight) about three to four hours before exercising to maximize pre-exercise glycogen stores. If the exercise is unplanned, eat 20 to 30 grams of carbohydrate immediately before you exercise.

Ketosis and Fasting

KD mechanism were inferred from clinical studies (Bridge & Iob, 1931). The earliest theory held that seizure protection was a result of a sedative effect of ketones, akin to the action of phenobarbital accordingly, the anesthetic or sedative effect engendered by ketone bodies could be overcome by glucose, which, in effect, destroyed the ketones (Helmholz & Keith, 1930). However, children maintained on the KD rarely became sedated, and the idea later arose that the beneficial effect was directly related to the ketosis produced by either fasting or the high-fat diet. It was thought that mild ketonemia was protective in mild epilepsy and that a larger degree of ketosis was necessary for seizure control in severe cases. Most subsequent reports have shown an association of seizure control with ketosis, although a causal relationship has not been proven. Ketosis occurs rapidly upon fasting or KD feeding, usually within 1 d (Keith, 1933 Dodson et al., 1976 Huttenlocher, 1976). Seizures may...

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Because of the negative effect of physical and emotional stress on the patient with adrenal insufficiency, promote strategies that reduce stress. Teach the patient to rest between activities to conserve energy and to wear warm clothing to increase comfort and limit heat loss. To limit the risk of infection, encourage the patient to use good hand-washing techniques and to limit exposure to people with infections. To prevent complications, teach the patient to avoid using lotions that contain alcohol to prevent skin dryness and breakdown and to eat a nutritious diet that has adequate proteins, fats, and carbohydrates to maintain sodium and potassium balance.

Biochemical Principles

All matter, whether living or non-living, is made up of atoms the atom is the smallest unit of matter capable of entering into a chemical reaction. Atoms can combine together by bonding, to form molecules, which range from the small and simple to the large and complex. The latter are known as macromolecules major cellular constituents such as carbohydrates and proteins belong to this group and it is with these that this chapter is mainly concerned (Table 2.1). In order to appreciate how these macromolecules operate in the structure and function of microbial cells however, we need to review the basic principles of how atoms are constructed and how they interact with one other.

The Substances Of Life

A useful simplification of biological organisms sometimes made by environmental engineers and scientists is to view them as catalysts for chemical reactions, such as the oxidation of ammonia or ferrous iron, or production of methane and carbon dioxide from acetic acid. Such a view hides the detailed mechanisms, including the sequence of chemical intermediates and the specific chemical nature of the catalyst. Examining these details will help us to understand more complex chemical interactions between organisms and their environment, such as biodegradation of toxic organic chemicals or the effect of chemicals on the health of organisms and ecosystems. The details of biochemistry begin with knowledge of the four most important types of chemical substances comprising living things carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Later, in the chapters on toxicology, we consider the biochemical reactions involving xenobiotic compounds (those that are, literally, foreign to life,'' that...

The Composition Of Living Things

Four groups of compounds are of primary importance in living things carbohydrates (including sugars, starches, cellulose, and glycogen), lipids (fats and oils), proteins, and nucleic acids (which form DNA and RNA). The first three of these form the majority of cell dry weight and are important for structural material, energy metabolism, and other metabolic functions. Nucleic acids are significant in reproduction and in energy metabolism. Finally, there are many compounds that do not fit neatly into these categories or may be hybrids of two or more.

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Challenges and Opportunities

In this context, the potential of a number of diverse ingredients with significant potential as flavour enhancers or masking agents have to be mentioned. In particular, special minus-diets, e.g. low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets, change the taste, texture and sensory qualities of a product and therefore require corresponding alterations to endow the products with the properties called for by the consumer. Flavour enhancers are defined as 'natural substances which are components of proteins or cell tissue. They have no typical taste or smell, but their presence potentiates other flavours present in the food.' In this field more and more studies are looking at the synergistic abilities of flavour-enhancing substances and the possibility of flavour masking.

Principles of Chromatography High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) HPLC, one of the most common chromatographic techniques performed by food scientists, is an analytical technique well suited to the separation and identification of biological molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, and lipids. With the development of stationary phases with very small particles sizes and large surface areas, HPLC improves elution rates by applying high pressure to the solvent flow. The result is high resolution of a solute into its individual components in a relatively short period of time (typically between 10-60 Min). Unknown compounds are identified by comparing their retention times (that is, the amount of time required for the compound to elute from the column under specific experimental conditions) to those of known standards, either alone or in combination. The computerized systems in use today are relatively simple to use as they are largely automated and can be...

Blood Group Genotyping

Blood group antigens are polymorphisms of proteins and carbohydrates on the outside surface of the red blood cell (RBC) (Fig. 1) and are defined by serum alloantibodies produced in response to an immunizing event such as transfusion or pregnancy. It is the antibody that causes clinical problems in transfusion incompatibility, maternal-fetal incompatibility, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

How Does Antigenic Drift Occur

Two antibodies are considered to belong to the same site. In the face of a human polyclonal antibody response, it would seem necessary to mutate each of the five distinct sites to generate an escape mutant. The early H3 variants show changes in all sites, but more recently the changes have been confined to fewer sites. The difference is likely to be in immunogenicity, and suggests that the human antibody response to recent viruses is not very polyclonal. The possible reasons include previous substitutions rendering a site nonimmunogenic, or blocking of sites by the addition of N-linked carbohydrates. A Aichi 68 HA1 contained six carbohydrate chains but by 1999 there were 11 sites for carbohydrate addition. Site A may now be completely shielded from antibodies. The mobilization

Is There Significant Antigenic Drift in NA

Antibodies against NA have been shown to contribute to protection. They do not inhibit entry of human viruses into cells but they inhibit spread of progeny viruses because sialic acid is not removed from the N-linked carbohydrates of the surface glycoproteins, causing aggregation of virus particles by HA HA interaction. The rate of amino acid substitution in NA is about half that in HA, suggesting a lesser antigenic selection. Ferret antisera that show clear differences in HA antigenicity from 1 year to the next may not discriminate between drifted NAs. However, the crystal structure of the NA of A Memphis 31 98 complexed with a neutralizing antibody suggests that NA may be contributing significantly to antigenic drift in H3N2 viruses. Of the 11 amino acids that make contact through side chains to the antibody, five have changed in isolates up to 2006 (Figure 3).

Introduction to Leukocytes

Diverse in their functions and characteristics, leukocytes do have two properties in common that utilize membrane proteins the need to adhere to other cells and the engagement of signaling pathways to carry out effector activities, including, in some cases, proliferation. Adhesion is carried out by an assortment of cell-surface proteins and carbohydrates, whose select distribution among various tissues and at different stages of cell development and differentiation regulate the migration and ultimate cellular interactions of leukocytes. Signaling is a profoundly complex process utilizing seemingly countless proteins, including those at the plasma membrane that initiate the pathway that extends through the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Lymphocytes (T-cells, B-cells) undergo a special recognition process wherein interaction of their cell-surface antigen receptors with antigen results in a signal requisite for proliferation and differentiation. In the case of...

Biomolecular Engineering Metabolic Engineering

Modification of metabolic storage products or secondary metabolic pathways, which often have relatively flexible roles in plant biology, has also been generally more successful than manipulations of primary and intermediary metabolism (DellaPenna, 2001). Thus, exploiting the full biosyn-thetic capacity of food crops requires a thorough knowledge of the metabolic routes in plants and the regulatory processes involved in plant biochemistry (Galili et al., 2001). When novel branch-points in plant metabolic pathways are introduced by genetic engineering, the introduced enzyme or enzymes must possess a sufficiently high affinity for their sub-strate(s) to compete with endogenous enzymes (Jacobsen and Khosla, 1998). In addition, the effects of novel carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids on plant physiology and development may limit the range and quantity of products that can be synthesized. The tissue and or cellular compartment in which the compound is produced may also limit accumulation of...

Energy Metabolism Of The Brain As A Whole Organ

Indeed, the oxygen consumption of the brain, which accounts for almost 20 of the oxygen consumption of the whole organism, is 160 mol per 100 g of brain weight per minute and roughly corresponds to the value determined for CO2 production. This O2 CO2 relation corresponds to what is known in metabolic physiology as a respiratory quotient of nearly 1 and demonstrates that carbohydrates, and glucose in particular, are the exclusive substrates for oxidative metabolism. This rather detailed information of whole-brain energy metabolism was obtained by using an experimental approach in which the concentration of a given substrate in the arterial blood entering the brain through the carotid artery is compared with that present in the venous blood draining the brain through the jugular vein (Kety and Schmidt, 1948). If the substrate is used by the brain, the arteriovenous (A-V) difference is positive in certain cases, the A-V difference may be negative, indicating that metabolic...

Transphosphatidylation by Lipid Coated Phospholipase in a Water Organic Two Phase System

We have applied this system to produce some practical phospholipid derivatives having amino acids, carbohydrates, and deoxyribonucleotides, as shown in Fig. 7. The lipid-coated PLD acts as an efficient catalyst to hydrophobize the water-soluble drug, such as saccharide, amino acid, and nucleic acid, resulting from the introduction as a head group of phospholipids.

Synergistic Action Of Pufa

Nevertheless, there are some exciting avenues to explore, of which one is the already mentioned possible role of PUFAs in the ketogenic diet, as is covered in Chapter 17. Another aspect is the enhancement of the action of conventional drugs by nanomolar concentrations of PUFAs. This interesting phenomenon was observed at very low doses

Improvement of Plant Nutritional and Functional Quality

Human beings require a diverse, well-balanced diet containing a complex mixture of both macronutrients and micronutrients in order to maintain optimal health. Macronutrients, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins make up the bulk of foodstuff and are used primarily as an energy source (Guzm n-Maldonado and Paredes-L pez, 1999). Modifying the nutritional composition of plant foods is an urgent worldwide health issue, as basic nutritional needs for much of the world population are still unmet (DellaPenna, 1999 Guzm n-Maldonado and Paredes-L pez, 1999 Kishore and Shewmaker, 1999 Mazur et al., 1999). Large numbers of people in developing countries exist on diets composed mainly of a few staple foods which usually present poor food quality for some macronutrients and many essential micronutri-ents (DellaPenna, 1999 Guzm n-Maldonado and Paredes-L pez, 1999 Kishore and Shewmaker, 1999 Mazur et al., 1999).

Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Produced Human APC

Unlike the other posttranslational modifications described above, the carbohydrates on rHPC differed from those on plasma-derived HPC. The structures of oligosaccharides on recombinant glycoproteins are determined to a large extent by the cell line used 32 . Oligosaccharides found on glycoproteins can influence parameters that are important to drug design, such as circulatory clearance, tissue targeting, immunogenicity, and efficacy 32 . In view of this, a detailed analysis of the oligosaccharide structures on rHPC from HEK293 cells was performed 9,33 , and novel and rare Asn-linked oligosaccharides were identified (Figure 4.4). The novel trisaccharide epitope on rHPC was designated the PC293 determinant, and, along with the two rare disaccharide epitopes, GalNAcP(1 4)GlcNAcP(1 4) and NeuAca(2 6)GalNAcP(1 4), have been found in naturally occurring human glycoproteins 34-37 . Glycosyl composition analysis has shown that these GalNAc-containing rare oligosaccharides are not present in...

Isolation And Purification Of Natural Products

Out sufficient experimental work necessary to biologically characterize or profile the compound. It can be quite a sobering experience to look at a flask full of dark-colored, inhomogeneous sludge and liquid and realize that one is going to attempt to isolate just one particular type of molecule from all of the other materials that are present. To put this in perspective, typically the material sought after represents only about 0.0001 percent of the total biomass in the flask 15,16 . Then, just to make things even more challenging, the desired molecules can also be bound with other materials and molecules present in the mixture, making the desired compound(s) even harder to purify. It is important to keep in mind that the isolation of natural products differs from that of the more prevalent biological macromolecules. This is because natural products are typically secondary metabolites and as such are smaller in size, chemically more diverse in structure, and present in smaller...

Structure And Physiology Of Angiosperms

The root is the underground portion of the sporophyte. Their main function is anchorage and absorption, but they may also be used in storage (as in carrots and potatoes). Monocots form a shallow fibrous root system. Gymnosperms and most dicots form a main root called a taproot that grows straight down. Roots of some trees have been found to penetrate 30 to 50 m into the soil. Most of the tree roots involved in absorption are in the top 15 cm and extend out beyond the crown of the tree. Roots of the corn plant (Zea mays) penetrate up to 1.5 m, and spread horizontally 1 m around the plant. The surface area of roots is greatly increased by the formation of root hairs, which grow from cells at the surface of the roots (Figure 7.3). As the plant grows, it maintains a balance between the leaf surface area and root surface area, so that water, minerals, and carbohydrates are formed in the proper proportion for growth. The roots absorb minerals by active

Decomposition of Organic Carbon Compounds in Natural and Manmade Ecosystems

Biological degradation of recent biomass and of organic chemicals during solid waste or wastewater treatment proceeds either in the presence of molecular oxygen by respiration, under anoxic conditions by denitrification, or under anaerobic conditions by methanogenesis or sulfidogenesis. Respiration of soluble organic compounds or of extracellularly solubilized biopolymers such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, or lipids in activated sludge systems leads to the formation of carbon dioxide, water, and a significant amount of surplus sludge. Some ammonia and H2S may be formed during degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids or heterocyclic compounds. Oxygen must either be supplied by aeration or by injection of pure oxygen. The two process variant for oxygen supply differ mainly in their capacity for oxygen transfer and the stripping efficiency for carbon dioxide from respiration. Stripping of carbon dioxide is necessary to prevent a drop in pH and to remove heat energy. Respiration...

Drawbacks Of Sample Abuse

Unless one is handed a bottle of salad oil, it is usually necessary to consider that the lipid classes of Figure 3.1 are dispersed in some sort of food matrix. At one time, a sausage was considered one of the toughest food items on which to perform an extraction, although a chicken pot pie is a close second (Sheppard et al., 1974 Hubbard et al., 1977). Historically, analysts regarded oven drying as an essential first step in sample proximate analysis, because moisture content was needed in any event and a dry sample could be conveniently ground and homogenized. Unfortunately, the oven drying created two problems. One was that the fats or lipids might be encased in dry protein or some similar matrix that solvent could penetrate only with difficulty (Happich et al., 1984 de Koning and Mol, 1989). The second difficulty created was the potential for oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Until modern chromatographic methods were introduced, it was not appreciated that not only did...

Selective Plating Media

These are formulated so that Salmonella may appear in the form of discrete colonies, whereas the growth of competing non-Salmonella microorganisms is suppressed. Non-Salmonella colonies are generaly distinguished by their ability to produce hydrogen sulfide, and to utilize one or more carbohydrates incorporated in the media. Selective media that have been used for the isolation of Salmonella include brillant green (BG), bismuth sulfite (BS), Salmonella shigella, MacConkey's, desoxycholate citrate, Hektoen enteric (HE), xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD), and xylose lysine brillant green.

Ivtotal Fatty Acid Recovery

The objective of lipid extraction is varied. Increasingly, it develops from requests for specific information on cholesterol and fatty acids. There is thus very little reason to bother with lipid extraction. Instead, total lipid recovery may be bypassed, and the sample may be digested under nitrogen to destroy the protein food matrix. Traditionally, as in the Association of Official Analytical Chemists' (AOAC) method 18.043 (Williams, 1984), concentrated HCI was used to digest carbohydrates and so on, but in practice alcoholic alkali will do this job more efficiently (Kovacs et al., 1979).

Hydrolysis of Cellulose by Aerobic and Anaerobic Microorganisms Biological Aspects

Glycosyl hydrolases are involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation by cleaving glycosidic bonds between different carbohydrates and between carbohydrates and noncarbohydrates. Endo- and exocellulases - in some organisms organized in cellulosomes - must be excreted into the medium. Cellulases are complex biocatalysts and contain a catalytic site and a substrate-binding site. The presence of a noncatalytic substrate binding site permits tight attachment to the different forms of cellulose substrate and keeps the enzyme close to its cleaving sites. Substrate binding is reversible, which allows the enzyme to 'hike' along the fibers and obtain total solubilization. Many aerobic fungi and some bacteria excrete endoglucanases that hydrolyze the amorphous region of cellulose (degradation within the chain), whereas exoglucanases hydrolyze cellulose from the ends of the glucose chains. Cel-lobiose is cleaved off by cellobiohydrolases from the nonreducing ends in the amorphous region,...

Metabolism of lipids and proteins

We have concentrated so far on the metabolism of carbohydrates, but both lipids and proteins may also act as energy sources. Both are converted by a series of reactions to an intermediate compound that can then enter the pathways of metabolism we have discussed above. Proteins are a less useful source of energy than lipids or carbohydrates, but may be utilised when these are in short supply. Like lipids, they are initially hydrolysed to their constituent 'building blocks', in this case, amino acids. These then undergo the loss of an amino group (deamination), resulting in a compound that is able to enter, either directly or indirectly, the TCA cycle.

Small size as an ecological response

Rich in macromolecules which are denser than water, including proteins ( 1300 kg m 3), carbohydrates ( 1500 kg m 3), and nucleic acids ( 1700 kg m 3). These molecules are contained within an aqueous cytosol, and the overall density of phytoplankton cells or colonies is typically 1050 kg m 3. This may be considerably increased by the presence of dense inorganic inclusions such as polyphosphate bodies ( 2500 kg m 3) and opaline silica cell wall material ( 2600 kg m 3). Conversely, cell density can be reduced by the internal presence of low-density lipids (860 kg m 3), gas vacuoles, and the occurrence of external mucilage.

Roles of Molecular Hydrogen and Acetate During Anaerobic Biopolymer Degradation

Molecular hydrogen is produced during different stages of anaerobic degradation. In the fermentative stage, organisms such as Clostridium sp. and Eubacterium sp. produce fatty acids, CO2, and hydrogen from carbohydrates. In the acetogenic stage, acetogens such as Syntrophobacter wolinii and Syntrophomonas wolfei produce acetate, CO2, and hydrogen or acetate and hydrogen by anaerobic oxidation of propionate and n-butyrate (Mclnerney, 1988). Fermentative bacteria release molecular hydrogen even at a high H2 partial pressure and simultaneously excrete reduced products (e.g., clostridia, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium sp.). However, the release of molecular hydrogen during acetogenesis of fatty acids or of other reduced metabolites may occur only when hydrogen does not accumulate, for thermodynamic reasons. Molecular hydrogen is consumed by methanogens (Table 1.4, reaction 1) or, alternatively, by sulfate reducers (Table 1.4, reaction 2) via interspecies hydrogen transfer. In the rumen and in...

Replication Strategy of Replication of Nucleic Acid

Both G1 and G2 are glycosylated with asparagine-linked carbohydrates, predominantly of the high mannose, endo-H sensitive type. Other post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation or myristoylation, have not been described. After G1 and G2 are transported to the Golgi, their carbohydrates are modified. It is assumed that either or both proteins have a Golgi retention signal, but if so, it has not been defined. The interactions of G1 and G2 proteins with N during morphogenesis have not

Biosynthesis of nucleic acids

Pyrimidines have a similarly complex synthesis. The amino acids aspartate and glu-tamine are involved in the synthesis of the precursor orotic acid. Note that unlike the purines, the skeleton of pyrimidines is fully formed before association with the ribose-5-phosphate moiety, which is itself derived from glucose (see biosynthesis of carbohydrates, above).

Anaerobic Degradation of Protein

Eral types of proteases that cleave membrane-permeable amino acids, dipeptides, or oligopeptides. In contrast to the hydrolysis of carbohydrates, which proceeds favorably at a slightly acid pH, optimal hydrolysis of proteins requires a neutral or weakly alkaline pH (McInerney, 1988). In contrast to the fermentation of carbohydrates, which lowers the pH due to volatile fatty acid formation, fermentation of amino acids in wastewater reactors does not lead to a significant pH change, due to acid and ammonia formation. Acidification of protein-containing wastewater proceeds optimally at pH values of 7 or higher (Winterberg and Sahm, 1992), and ammonium ions together with the CO2-bicarbonate-carbonate buffer system stabilize the pH. Acetogenesis of fatty acids from deamination of amino acids requires a low H2 partial pressure for the same reasons as for carbohydrate degradation. This can be maintained by a syntrophic interaction of fermentative, protein-degrading bacteria and acetogenic...

Anaerobic Degradation of Neutral Fats and Lipids

Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and biogenic oils can also be degraded anaerobical-ly under thermophilic conditions. The overall degradation scheme is the same, but the microorganism populations are different (e.g., Winter and Zellner, 1990). Thermophilic fat degradation is becoming more important in practice, since waste fat from fat separators and fat flotates of the food industry are often cofermented in agricultural biogas plants. Since, for hygienic reasons, the input material must be au-toclaved, a thermophilic process should be used, keeping the fat in a melted, soluble form for more effective metabolism. Biogas plants with cofermentation of waste fat residues are considered waste treatment systems (Chapter 11, this volume) and must be designed to meet the hygienic demands relevant to treatment of the respective waste.

Development of Ceredase

Since P-glucocerebrosidase is a large glycoprotein and carbohydrates are essential for correct folding and activity, a mammalian expression system was chosen. The cDNA for P-glucocerebrosidase was cloned into CHO cells using a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) expression system. Following amplification, highest producing clones were adapted to an anchorage-dependent serum-free microcarrier spinner culture system for production evaluation 61 . The highest producing line was then progressively scaled up from spinner flasks to production bioreactors of increasing size up to 2000 L. The bioreactors were operated in a continuous perfusion mode to maximize production efficiency and reduce the potential for proteolytic degradation or other posttranslational modifications of the product due to cell lysis. The Cerezyme purification process was similar to that used for the production of Ceredase and was based on standard chromatographic procedures. Since the biore-actors were harvested in a...

DRG Category 296 Mean LOS 54 days Description Medical Nutritional and

Magnesium plays an important role in neuromuscular function. It also has a role in several enzyme systems, particularly the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, as well as maintenance of normal ionic balance (it triggers the sodium-potassium pump), osmotic pressure, myocardial functioning, and bone metabolism. Because the kidneys are able to excrete large amounts of magnesium ( 5000 mg day), either the patient has to ingest extraordinary amounts of magnesium or the glomerular filtration of the kidneys needs to be very depressed for the patient to develop hypermagnesemia. Complications include complete heart block, cardiac arrest, and respiratory paralysis.

Food Labels and Fiber

The food labels on all packaged foods describe the serving size and how many grams of carbohydrates there are in each serving. One word of caution the food labels break down the carbohydrates into sugars and fibers. Since humans cannot digest fiber very well, the grams of fiber should be excluded from the carbohydrate estimation, especially if the fiber content is particularly high. If you are going to eat a food with 5 grams of dietary fiber or more, you should subtract the dietary fiber content from the total carbohydrate. For example, for a food in which the carbohydrate content is 31 grams per serving, and there are 6 grams of dietary fiber in that serving, calculate the insulin for 31 - 6 25 grams carbohydrate. For each meal, count the total number of carbohydrates in all the foods (typically anywhere from 30 to 105 grams), and then inject a dose of a fast-acting insulin analog (such as lispro, aspart, or glulisine see Chapter 6) based on the amount of carbohydrates. For example,...

Flavour Generation by Fermentation of Food Raw Materials

Table 2.11 gives an overview of traditionally produced foods by raw material borne micro-organisms via spontaneous fermentation. In all cases the fermentation produces or intensifies typical flavours. Starting materials in general are the usual building blocks of foods carbohydrates (oligo- and polysaccharides), proteins, peptides and amino acids, fats and fatty acids, nucleic acids and minerals, organic and inorganic acids. Still today, in the time of modern biotechnology, these traditional processes have the biggest significance of all biotechnical processes in food technology. The food industry, however, together with the pharmaceutical industry, has become by far the most important employer of modern biotechnologists.

Infancy And Childhood

This is maintained further by weaning on to a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet but falls rapidly with weaning on to the normal high-carbohydrate diet.5'18 However, during this transition there are significant nutritional and metabolic differences between human and rat. In rat plasma fatty acid substrates for ketogenesis come mainly from hydrolysis of maternal milk triacylglycerols, due to lack of white adipose tissue at birth. In human neonates there is significant accumulated triacylglycerol in the liver, rapidly mobilized for utilization in situ after birth. Significant amounts of fat are stored in the human fetus in white adipose tissue comprising 16-20 body mass, mainly as triacylglycerides containing high proportions of palmic (C16) and oleic (C18 1) acids. Plasma free fatty acids start to rise soon after birth from lipolysis of this store. Once lactation is established, fatty acids from intestinal hydrolysis of milk triacylglycerols are directly...

Extraction Of Lipids From Foods And Biological Materials

Lipids in nature are associated with other molecules via (a) van der Waals interaction, e.g., interaction of several lipid molecules with proteins (b) electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, mainly between lipids and proteins and (c) covalent bonding among lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Therefore, to separate and isolate lipids from a complex cellular matrix, different chemical and physical treatments must be administered. Water insolubility is the general property used for the separation of lipids from other cellular components. Complete extraction may require longer extraction time or a series or combination of solvents so that lipids can be solubilized from the matrix. Sometimes nonpolar solvents, such as diethyl ether and hexane, do not easily penetrate the moist tissues ( 8 moisture) therefore, effective lipid extraction does not occur. Diethyl ether is hygroscopic and becomes saturated with water and thus inefficient for lipid extraction. Therefore, reducing moisture content...

Nitrogen And Carbon Cycling By Litter Saprotrophs

Mature rings typically consisted of a 30-40 cm wide band with the mycelial front extending into fresh litter and the inner edge leaving bleached litter behind (Chapter 1). In contrast, Frankland et al. (1995) described a 'sit-and-wait' strategy, where Mycena galopus in a coniferous forest formed sporocarps at the same position year after year, presumably reflecting the location of the mycelium. In such cases, it appears that the fungi forage for resources mostly vertically, extending out from more decayed litter below into freshly fallen litter deposited on top. Both examples illustrate the polar growth of litter-degrading mycelia, and how they constantly advance into new resource-units from older, depleted ones. The dynamics of resource colonisation by saprotrophic mycelia has been thoroughly investigated in wood-decomposing fungi. A wide range of studies describe how saprotrophic basidiomycetes in heterogeneous environments optimise resource utilisation and...

Nitrogen Export During Late Saprotrophic Decomposition Stages

Traditional nitrogen cycling theory is based around the mineralisation of organic nitrogen and release of ammonium during decomposition. Release of inorganic nitrogen occurs when microorganisms experience carbohydrate deficiency and therefore utilise organic, nitrogen-containing compounds as a source of energy, leaving ammonium as a by-product (Myrold, 1998). This concept was developed for unicellular microorganisms, which are restricted to resources in their immediate vicinity and may therefore easily experience carbon deficiency. Filamentous fungi, on the other hand, may circulate resources throughout their entire mycelia, and mycelium experiencing local carbon deficiency may be supported from more or less distant resources (Chapter 3). In coniferous forest ecosystems, litter input is often more continuous than in other ecosystems, and needles may constitute a high-quality source of cellulose for at least 2 years. Thus, carbon limitation and subsequent nitrogen mineralisation is...

Lignin Decomposition by Saprotrophs

As cellulose decomposition proceeds, the concentration of the more recalcitrant lignin increases (Figure 1 Berg et al., 1982). At later stages of decomposition, decay correlate well with lignin concentration in the litter (McClaugherty and Berg, 1987). Polyphenolic compounds, either tannins present in the fresh litter or products of lignin decomposition, form recalcitrant complexes with nitrogen-containing compounds, such as proteins and chitin (Kelley and Stevenson, 1995). As a result, nitrogen progressively becomes incorporated into the highly recalcitrant, polyphenolic litter fraction during decomposition (Berg, 1988). In highly decomposed coniferous forest humus, more than half of the nitrogen was found in the acid insoluble (i.e. polyphenolic) fraction (Johnsson et al., 1999). Bas-idiomycetes have been highlighted as the main organisms responsible for lignin degradation, using elaborate oxidative enzyme systems (Rayner and Boddy, 1988 Chapter 2). There are, however, large energy...

Very Late Decomposition Stages Humus and Mycorrhizal Fungi

The shift in community composition from saprotrophic taxa at initial stages of litter decomposition to mycorrhizal taxa at later stages coincides with a simultaneous shift in the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of the litter (Figure 2 Lindahl et al., 2007). During the saprotrophic phase, C N ratios decreased with time, presumably due to consumption of litter carbon by fungal respiration, and retention of nitrogen in fungal biomass. In the mycorrhizal phase, C N ratios increased slightly with time, presumably due to mobilisation and subsequent translocation of organic nitrogen to the plant roots in combination with respiration of host-derived carbohydrates rather than litter carbohydrates.

Ketone Body Concentrations within Brain

Since the liver can achieve a plasma ketone body concentration of between 1-2mM24 when exposed to a high fat diet, what might be the advantage of an organ such as brain in possessing an endogenous ketogenic capacity Firstly, it might provide a compensatory mechanism when, for reasons of reduced hepatic ketogenesis, plasma ketone body concentrations fall to lower limits (eg. 0.5 mM). This would hold true if there was an absolute requirement for a given concentration of ketone body within brain eg. 1 mM. However, there is some evidence to suggest that the brain as a whole uses ketone bodies facultatively, rather than having an obligate requirement for a minimum plasma concen-tration.25 Secondly, however, possessing an endogenous ketogenic capacity might expose ketolytic cell-types in the brain to ketone body concentrations that are simply unattainable in the plasma as a result of hepatic ketogenesis. This is potentially very important in the brain, since ketone body concentrations in...

Ketone Bodies and Seizure Disorders

Epileptic seizures affect approximately 1 of children and constitute one of the most common paediatric neurological disorders. An increasingly popular epilepsy treatment is the so-called ketogenic diet (KD),28,29 a high fat diet with associated high plasma concentrations of free fatty acids, ketone bodies and glucocorticoids,24 which can result in prolonged seizure remission in up to 30 of intractable infant epilepsies.28,29 Although the biochemical basis behind many seizure-types remains to be defined, certain anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) (eg. vigabatrin) appear to enhance the activity of the seizure-suppressing inhibitory neurotransmitter yaminobutyric acid (GABA), whilst others (eg. lamotrigine, felbamate) appear to inhibit the activity of seizure-inducing excitatory amino-acids (EAAs) such as aspartate and glutamate.30 Similarly, the mode of action of the KD appears to involve alterations in amino-acid neurotransmitter concentrations, since, as previously mentioned, addition of...

Major Reducing Enzymes

The aldo keto reductases (AKR) constitute a superfamily of soluble oxidoreductases. They occur in most living organisms and utilize NADP+(H) as cofactor to reduce aldehydes and ketones to primary and secondary alcohols, respectively. The reactions are reversible, but unlike the ALDs, the AKRs generally catalyze reductive rather than oxidative reactions. To date, 14 families of AKRs have been identified that together contain over 100 different proteins (1). Out of these, at least eight individual proteins are human enzymes and members of one of two families, AKR1 and AKR7 (AKR1B1, AKR1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, AKR1C4, AKR7A2, and AKR7A3) (1). In general, the AKRs have broad substrate selectivity and tend to operate on both endobiotics (e.g., carbohydrates, ketosteroids, retinal) and xenobiotics e.g., the antiemetic agent dolasetron, the antitumor drug daunoru-bicin, and the tobacco-specific carcinogen (NNK) (Fig. 5.1) (2). At least four AKR isoforms (AKR1C1, 1C2, 1C4, and 1B10) have...

Toxicity of Nutrients

As noted before, many food chemicals are nutrients. Nutrients, as defined, are necessary for growth, maintenance, and reproduction of living organisms. In the overall scheme of nutrition, nutrients can Macronutrients include fats, can be divided into vitamins and minerals, thelatterincluding traceelements.Several decades of nutritional research have beendevotedtodefiningtheintakelevelsof macro- and micronutrients necessary to meettheneedsofpeople andlevelssafefor healthy individuals. Such information hasbeensummarizedinseveralpublications emphasizing recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) and, recently, the dietary reference intake (DRI).

The Regioselective Acylation of Sugars Derivatives

Intensive research has been done on the selective protection and deprotection of the hydroxyl group of carbohydrates (44-48). In general, chemical preparation of protected sugars with free primary hydroxyl groups may require several steps such as tritylation, esterification, and acid-catalyzed detritilation. Using enzyme-catalyzed selective acylation or deacylation, one or two steps may complete the synthesis. Some proteases possess both esterase and protease activities. Alcalase has both activities, with preferred esterase activity resulting in ester formation from a primary alcohol. The following procedure describes the alcalase-catalyzed regioselective acylation of (ethyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-thio-D-glucose) at the C-6 hydroxyl position using vinyl benzoate in 2-methyl-2-pro-panol as an irreversible acylation agent. The reaction is shown in Fig. 3.

How do we know genes are made of DNA

Carbohydrates or any other cellular component was similarly inactivated, the ability was retained. In spite of this apparently convincing proof, the pro-protein lobby was not easily persuaded. It was to be several more years before the experimental results of Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (Box 11.1) coupled with Watson and Crick's model for DNA structure (Figure 2.23) finally cemented the universal acceptance of DNA's central role in genetics.

Phosphatidylserine Exposure as One Early Membrane Change of Apoptotic Cells

Those rapid surface changes include modifications of carbohydrates and exposure of anionic phospholipids, especially PS. The redistribution of PS both on phagocyte and prey is involved 40 . The protein annexin-V (AxV) preferentially binds PS with high affinity and inhibits apoptotic cell uptake by macrophages, most likely through interference with the availability of PS for recognition 11, 32 . Scientists started to look for the PS receptor. PS, being a phospholipid, could not be cloned and therefore Fadok's group started to produce monoclonal antibodies (Ab) against stimulated macrophages. The antigenic target of the monoclonal Ab 217 had hallmarks of a PSR, namely it recognized PS and blocked the engulfment of apoptotic cells 20 . Two other groups have reported phenotypes of PSR-deficient mice consistent with a role of the PSR in the removal of apoptotic cells 34, 35 . However, the essential role of the protein termed PSR in mediating the phagocytosis of dead cells has been...

Cerebral Energy Metabolism

The most comprehensive biochemical theory of KD action was put forth by DeVivo and colleagues, who studied in detail the brain biochemical changes accompanying KD feeding (Appleton & DeVivo, 1974 DeVivo et al., 1978 DeVivo et al., 1975 Nordli & DeVivo, 1997). Brains of rats fed a KD underwent a metabolic adaptation in switching from carbohydrates to fats as the primary energy source. In these brains, there was an increase in energy charge that is, enzymes and substrates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were altered so as to increase the relative ATP ADP ratio, resulting in increased energy reserves. The decrease in seizures resulting from this metabolic adaptation was hypothesized to be the result of greater availability of energy in the brain. Serum levels of P-OHB and AcAc were several-fold higher in KD-treated rats than in rats receiving the high-carbohydrate diet. Similarly, brain levels of P-OHB were sevenfold higher in KD-fed rats. The authors concluded that...

Direct Effects on Neuronal Excitability

Reduced the size and number of multiple population spikes in CA1 in the high-K+ and 4-AP models. Furthermore, P-OHB eliminated spontaneous bursting and ictal-like discharges in all four models. In whole-cell recordings, P-OHB increased the amplitudes of GABAA-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), leading the authors to conclude that GABA exerted a direct postsynaptic effect (Ge & Niesen, 1998). These findings imply that ketones may directly suppress neuronal hyperexcitability and that the level of ketosis per se may be the critical variable in affording the anticonvulsant benefit. However, there is a possibility that commercially available P-OHB preparations contain neuroactive impurities (Donevan et al., 1999), and these results need verification. In preliminary experiments, we confirmed that 5-10 mM P-OHB reduced spontaneous neuronal bursting in the high-K+ (8 mM) model, but we were unable to demonstrate anticonvulsant effects of this compound in the bicuculline,...

Changes in the Glycoprotein Composition of Membranes of Apoptotic Cells

During the later phases of apoptotic cell death leading to the recognition by additional adaptor molecules of apoptotic cells the complement component C1q 10 , surfactant protein A (SAP) and D (SPD) 61, 65 , the long pentraxin PTX3 55 , and CRP. Furthermore, carbohydrate-binding proteins, the lectins, are also players of the innate immune system. Galactose- and mannose-specific receptors are discussed as having an important role for the recognition of dying cells 13 . We found that lectins recognizing the sugars mannose, frucose and N-actelyglucosamine bind to apoptotic cells during later phases of apoptosis. Compared to AxV, the binding of the lectins is delayed. A further difference is that viable cells also show a substantial binding of these lectins, which is increased markedly on apoptotic cells. The binding of AxV to apoptotic and necrotic cells is rather similar. This is in striking contrast to the lectin-binding capabilities, which is substantially higher in necrotic cells,...

Factors Affecting Citric Acid Production 1541 Nutrients

The composition of the media used for the production of citric acid by A. niger depends on the strain of the microorganism used and the type of process. Generally, strains that can use one carbon source efficiently fail to show good acid production when cultured in a medium containing another (3). Aspergillus niger grows well in media containing carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, mannose, and starch), nitrogen (as ammonium or nitrate ions), phosphate, low amounts of potassium, magnesium, sulfate, and trace metals such as iron, manganese, zinc, and copper. It has been found that citric acid yields are much higher when A. niger strains are grown in simple synthetic media rather than in complex media. The initial sugar concentration plays an important role. The highest citric acid concentrations were observed in cultures grown at high initial sugar concentrations (15-20 w v) (3,27,85,86). Further increase of sugar concentration (i.e., 250 g L)) resulted in a decrease of...

Composition of biowaste

Biowaste of animal origin such as that contained in sewage and soiled animal bedding contains unabsorbed fats, proteins and carbohydrates, resulting from incomplete digestion of ingested food of animal and plant origin. In addition, abattoir waste would include all of the above and a substantial proportion of fats and protein, derived from the slaughtered animal. In addition, materials excreted by the animal include metabolic breakdown products such as urea and other small nitrogen-containing materials, for example partially degraded bile pigments. Live and dead bacteria, normally resident in animal gut are also present in the biowaste and so contribute their own fats, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. of sugars and therefore are carbohydrates, lignin is a polymer of the two amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Despite its abundance, its structure is poorly understood, in part a tribute to the fact that it is extremely resistant to degradation and therefore presents...

Quality Control Evaluations

Extensive analysis of rFIX is undertaken in accordance with industry standards for recombinant proteins to assess the (1) identity, (2) purity, (3) potency, and (4) safety and quality of the rFIX product obtained from the cell culture and purification processes (the drug substance) and also of the final formulated enzyme product (Section 11.5.5) 59 . In terms of purity, rFIX consists of both zymogen (mature, inactive FIX) and activated products of the mature zymogen. The cleavage products of both pdFIX and rFIX preparations are similar, with both containing FIX and FIX-related species (such as FIXa), although the amounts in each type of preparation may vary. Any non-FIX species derived from host cells or purification processes (including host cell proteins, carbohydrates, and small molecules) are considered impurities 59 .

RFIX Biochemical Properties and Characterization

Within the EGF-like domains, the carbohydrates structure and content, as determined by peptide mapping and mass spectrometry (MS) (O-linked glycosylation at S53 and S61) are the same in rFIX and pdFIX, with some minor differences. The relative proportion of -hydroxylation of D64 was slightly less in rFIX than

The Virus Multiplication Cycle

Adsorption, is mediated by the binding of a viral protein, located at the virion surface, to a receptor at the cell surface. Cellular receptors of many viruses have been identified. Most viruses adsorb to cell surface proteins that have specific metabolic functions, and that are expressed only in a subset of differentiated cells. Rabies virus, for example, binds to the acetylcholine receptor, and accordingly adsorbs to nerve cells. Human immunodeficiency virus adsorbs to CD4 molecules of T lymphocytes and macrophages, but needs co-receptors for viral entry into these cells. These co-receptors have been identified recently, and belong to the family of chemokine receptors. It should also be noted that carbohydrates have been shown to act as virus receptors. For example, polyomavirus, Sendai virus and vaccinia virus adsorb to sialyloligosaccharides of glycoproteins and glycolipids, which can be found on the surface of many cell types.

The digestion process

Carbohydrates, cellulose, proteins and fats are broken down and liquefied by the extracellular enzymes produced by hydrolytic bacteria. The proteins are broken down into amino acids, fats into long-chain fatty acids and carbohydrates into simple sugars, while the liquefaction of complex biological polymers, especially cellulose, to simple, soluble substances is often the rate-limiting step in digestion. The rate of hydrolysis is governed by the nature and availability of the substrate, bacterial population, temperature and pH.

Discovery of Correction In Vitro Uptake and Treatment of MPS I

Correct the metabolic defect behind the GAG accumulation 3 . Although they did not know initially that this factor was an enzyme, it was clear that it was a diffusible factor and that it was very potent at very low concentrations. By 1971, the identity of the corrective factor for MPS I was determined to be a-L-iduronidase 4 , which was modified in some manner that made it distinct on heparin chromatography from noncorrective enzyme 24 . In 1977, Kaplan, et al. 25 determined that the modification that allowed for a-L-iduroni-dase to be corrective was a mannose 6-phosphate moiety on the N-linked high-mannose carbohydrates. Even with both the identity of the enzyme and the reason for its corrective properties known, the ability to test ERT in MPS I was limited by the lack of available sources of appropriately modified enzyme. Enzyme from tissue sources lacked mannose 6-phosphate and was not corrective. In addition, the native enzyme was present in vanish-ingly small quantities in...

Endogenous Inhibitor of Nitric Oxide

There is evidence that serum levels of ADMA appear to be dynamically regulated. One group reported that plasma ADMA increased with the administration of a high-fat diet in patients with type 2 DM (97). This was also associated with a temporally related impairment of endothelial vasodilation. Experimental hyperhomocysteinemia increases ADMA levels, and is associated with impairment of flow-mediated vasodilation (98). On the other hand, Paiva's group recently found that although higher plasma levels of ADMA were associated with lower glomerular filtration rate in subjects with type 2 diabetes, but, as a whole, diabetic subjects had lower plasma levels of ADMA than healthy controls (99). Hence, whether ADMA is a true pathological contributor to diabetic vasculopathy, or just a marker of vascular disease in this diverse patient population remains to be conclusively defined.

Characterization of Protein and Carbohydrate

The structure of the carbohydrates is verified using a FACE assay in which all the N-linked sugars are removed using N-glycanse F (PNGase-F), and the sugar chains modified with a fluorescent charged tag and then fractionated on a special gel. The pattern of bands is highly specific and the bis-phosphate-mannose-7 structure is quantified on the gel. This gives an assessment of the potential affinity to bind the M6PR. The sialic acid content is also quantified using a standard chemical method. The overall charge heterogeneity is assessed using isoelectric focusing gels.

Alterations of Amino Acids

Amino acid asparagine or to the hydroxyl of the amino acids serine or threonine. The structure of these carbohydrates can be complex and variable and often does not affect the function of proteins directly. However, gly-cosylation can affect the protein's solubility, its targeting to a particular part of the cell, its folding into a three-dimensional structure, its lifetime before it is degraded, and its interaction with other proteins.

Role of MBLassociated Serine Protease MASP On Activation of the Lectin Complement Pathway

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin are pattern recognition molecules in the complex with the MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs). Three kinds of MASPs, termed as MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3 have been identified. When MBL or ficolins binds to carbohydrates on the surface of microbes, conformational modifications of these molecules trigger to activate zymogens of MASPs, followed by consequential complement activation. MASP-2 cleaves C4 and C2 to make a C3 convertase, C4b2a. MASP-1 has an ability to cleave C3 directly, although this activity has not been detected in physiological conditions. Natural target molecules for MASP-3 are still discussible. To elucidate the physiological meanings of MASPs, we generated MASPs-deficient mice. Not only MASP-2-deficient mouse but also MASP-1- MASP-3-deficient mouse reduced activities for C3 deposition on the surface of mannan and zymosan, suggesting MASP-1 3 also contribute the activation of complement by the lectin pathway. Also,...

David A Mac Manus Anna Millqvist Fureby and Evgeny N Vulfson 1 Introduction

This latter development posed an interesting question of whether it would be possible to apply similar principles to the transformation of other complex natural products (e.g., carbohydrates). Enzymes are valuable tools in the synthesis and modification oligosaccharides, as they can be used to generate the required type and configuration of glycosidic linkage with no requirement for elaborate protection deprotection strategies. Numerous examples of the preparative use of glycosidases and glycosyltransferases, either on their own or in conjunction with conventional chemistry, have been described in the literature (see reviews in refs. 15-17). In general, the use of biocatalysts leads to a significant simplification in synthetic protocols because of a reduction in the overall number of steps required. In this chapter, we describe the use of metastable supersaturated solutions of carbohydrates as an attractive low-water media for the preparation of glycosides and disaccharides (18-21)...

Microbial associations with plants

The roots of almost all plants form mutualistic associations with fungi, known as mycorrhizae, which serve to enhance the uptake of water and mineral nutrients, especially phosphate, by the plants. The beneficial effect of a mycorrhizal association is particularly noticeable in soils with a poor phosphorus content. In return, the plant supplies reduced carbon in the form of carbohydrates to the fungi. Unlike other plant-microorganism interactions that occur in the rhizosphere, mycor-rhizal associations involve the formation of a distinct,

Ecology of Marine and Freshwater Basidiomycetes

Terrestrial counterparts and colonize a wide range of substrata sea-grasses, feathers, wood associated with sand, free floating in the sea, but most occur on mangrove wood or timbers submerged in the sea (boats, piling, sea defences), and leaves and twigs in streams and rivers. They are an ecological group and taxonomically diverse (Agariomycotina, Uredinomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina). Most are able to utilize simple carbohydrates, while filamentous species can decompose cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Aquatic basidiomycetes are well adapted to their habitats, with reduced basidiomata. Marine species are known only as teleomorphs with basidio-spores generally released passively. Freshwater basidiomycetes are primarily known by their anamorphs on decaying leaves, with conidia that are much branched, while their teleomorphs occur on land and on woody substrata.

Influence of n3 PUFAs on Fat Metabolism Oxidation and Thermogenesis

Jones and Schoeller (1988) showed that when added to a saturated-fat diet, n-3 PUFA increased basal metabolic rate and total energy expenditure. Within minutes of ingestion, n-3 PUFAs upregulate genes involved in lipid oxidation and downregulate genes involved in lipogenesis. Hepatic oxidation of fatty acids increases within 3 d when the diet contains 12-15 fish oil, but does not increase for several weeks when the diet contains n-6 PUFAs. Evidence suggests that unlike intake of a high-fat diet, intake of a diet rich in n-3 PUFAs may promote fat utilization rather than storage (Price, Nelson, & Clarke, 2000).

Biochemical Properties

Streptokinase is a single-chain polypeptide and exerts its fibrinolytic action indirectly by activating the circulatory plasminogen to form plasmin, which subsequently lyses the fibrin clot. The translated polypeptide consists of 440 amino acids, including a 26-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide that is cleaved during secretion. The mature 414-amino acid streptokinase displays a molecular mass of 47 kDa 35,37,38 . The protein exhibits its maximum activity at a pH of approximately 7.5 and its pI is 4.7. The protein does not contain conjugated carbohydrates or lipids 35,39 . Streptokinases produced by different groups of streptococci differ considerably in structure 35 . The secondary structure of streptokinase has been quantitatively examined with P-sheet content between 30 and 37 ,

Sterically Stabilized Liposomes

Protecting the liposome surface by polyethylene glycol (PEG) or other polar surface ligands such as carbohydrates has led to the development of stealth liposomes. These long-circulating liposomes have improved pharmacokinetics compared to CLs.32_34 Surface components on stealth liposomes prevent the liposomes from sticking to each other as well as to blood cells or to vascular walls. They are invisible to the immune system and have shown promising results in cancer therapy. They are also less prone to uptake by the liver. They can therefore remain in circulation longer than conventional liposomes.35 A small percentage of the PEG-modified PE 3 and some normal PCs can form sterically stabilized liposomes.

Lipoprotein Glycation Oxidation and Glyco Oxidation

In diabetes, increased nonenzymatic glycosylation affects any protein exposed to elevated levels of glucose. Glucose is covalently bound, mainly to lysine residues in protein molecules forming fructose-lysine. Subsequently, further reactions occur, mainly in long-lived proteins, leading to the development of unreactive end-products, many of which are cross-linked, brown or fluorescent (133). The most common description for these end-products is AGE. Only a few are well-recognized structures such as carboxymethyllsine (134) and pentosidine (135). Others have been identified in model systems and by immunological techniques in vivo, such as pyrraline (136) and crosslines (137). The formation of these end products and the accompanying increase in protein fluorescence are mediated by free radical oxidation (138). Thus, because glycation and oxidation are involved, the products are also called glyco-oxidation products. Recently, it has been recognized that some of the AGEs are derived from...

Aqueous Twophase Extraction

Biomaterials derived from or produced by the plants, animals or the micro-organism mainly consist of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Production of biomaterials on a commercial scale involves cell disruption followed by separation of the desired products. The cost of the separation step may be as high as 90 of the total cost of the production. For the separation of enzymes and proteins, aqueous two-phase extraction process has become a versatile and efficient method. The method can be used for the removal of cell debris as well as further purification of the biomolecules. Although, not of current interest, the developments in the field of biotechnology for separation using aqueous two-phase extraction will be of importance for macromolecules of interest to the food industry.

Application of DCC to Biological Systems

The applications of dynamic combinatorial chemistry, as described so far in numerous reports, can be divided into two categories. One set is primarily focused on the development of reversible chemistries, to establish optimized conditions for a controllable rapid exchange of library constituents without subjecting these libraries to any target-directed screening. The conditions applied are often not suitable for biological systems and the studies aim at understanding the basic features of DCL formation, their characteristics and their analysis. 24, 32, 40, 52-57 . The other set addresses both the generation and the screening phases in the presence of a target and various protocols have been developed. In particular, several applications that target different classes of biological macromolecules, including lectins, enzymes and polynucleotides have been reported (Table 16.2). Biological molecules are the most interesting and the most challenging target molecules. The dynamic libraries...

Clinical And Pathologic Characterization

Clinically, these mutants have remained consistently normal.3 We have challenged them with fasting,3 medium-chain triglyceride loading,3 as well as, sodium butyrate loading, sodium benzoate and salicylate loading in an attempt to overload the glycine conjugation pathway. We have also fed them a high fat diet (40 fat) composed of butter fat with a relatively high short-chain fatty acid content. Even after consuming this diet for over a month, these mice showed no clinical signs of disease with fasting. Pathological characteristics include predominately fatty liver and kidney3,9 ultrastructural studies demonstrated swollen, disorganized mitochondria in hepatocytes from fasted mutants with the appearance of a grade II change as described for children with swollen mitochondria associated with Reye Syndrome.9 There was also depletion of hepatocyte glycogen stores.

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

To decrease bulk, teach the patient to maintain a diet high in protein and carbohydrates and low in residue. If diarrhea remains a problem, instruct the patient to notify the physician or clinic because antidiarrheal agents can be prescribed. Encourage the patient to limit her exposure to others with colds because radiation tends to decrease the ability to fight infections. To decrease skin irritation, encourage the patient to wear loose-fitting clothing and avoid using heating pads, rubbing alcohol, and irritating skin preparations.

Receptor Proteins as Targets

Molecular recognition of carbohydrates represents a research area with strong potential bearing on drug discovery, as well as various biotechnology applications 62 . Carbohydrates play central roles in many biological processes, such as cell-cell interactions and cell communication and numerous enzymes are involved in various carbohydrate-mediated processes associated with cell proliferation and cell death, for example. An early example in which DCC has been applied in gly-coscience described the formation of a prototype library of four different interchanging stereoisomers from the Fe2+-assisted assembly of a carbohydrate-decorated bipyridine unit 63, 64 . On interaction with a range of GalNAc-selective lectins, the distribution of these isomers was adjusted depending on the lectin. Carbohydrate libraries targeting concanavaline A, showing (A) a dynamic combinatorial library of disulfide containing carbohydrates and (B) a dynamic library of carbohydrates containing hydrazone spacer...

Control of gene expression

Nitrate reductase is a very short-lived protein (halflife a few hours), so that regulation of its synthesis provides an effective strategy for controlling its levels within the cell. Various environmental factors control the synthesis of the enzyme at the level of gene expression, some of which promote synthesis (nitrate concentration, light, glucose, and other carbohydrates) while others are inhibitory (gluta-mine and other amino-acids). These factors appear to act via receptors which monitor nitrate reductase demand in relation to the requirement for amino-acids and to the supply of carbon skeletons from CO2 assimilation. Activation of nitrate reductase in Glucose and other carbohydrates Glucose and other carbohydrates

Imprinting Enzymes for Use in Organic Media

The use of additives to the aqueous solution prior to freezing has been shown to prevent the reversible denaturation of proteins during the drying process (19,20). These lyoprotectants, including sucrose and trehalose (and other carbohydrates) and polyethylene glycol, have been shown to increase the activity of many enzymes suspended in anhydrous organic solvents (11). This lyoprotection phenomenon occurs concomitantly with the imprinting, especially when imprinting with nucleophilic substrates such as sugars or nucleosides (10). 1. The analysis of enzyme-catalyzed transesterifications in anhydrous organic solvents typically involves the use of HPLC or GC. For sucrose, GC analysis using a flame ionization detector (FID) and a HP-1 capillary column was employed following precolumn derivitization of the carbohydrates using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane (Sigma Sil-A). The progress of thymidine acylation reactions was followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography...

Microbial Biotechnology in Industry

Microorganisms are important for many reasons, particularly because they produce things that are of value to us (Demian, 2000a,b). These can be very large materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, food polymers, or even cells, or they can be smaller molecules that are usually separated into metabolites that are essential for vegetative growth (primary) and those that are inessential (secondary) (Demian, 2000a,b).

Systolic Pressurevolume Area Predicts The Oxygen Consumption Of The Heart

Virtually all of the heart's energy is derived from oxidative metabolism. Substrate is primarily fatty acids and to a much lesser extent carbohydrates. As a result, a linear relationship exists between the heart's energy production and its oxygen consumption. Because most of the heart's energy expenditure goes into mechanical work, it is not surprising that there is a close correlation between the oxygen consumption of the heart and its mechanical activity. Figure 13 reveals this relationship. The external physical work done by the heart (pressure times volume) is exactly given by the area within the ejection loop. That area, however, correlates poorly with the heart's oxygen requirements. If, however, an internal work component as shown in Fig. 13 is added to the external work, that sum correlates almost perfectly with the heart's energy demands. This systolic pressure-volume area index leads to some interesting and surprising predictions. For example, notice that raising the aortic...

Pufa A Feasible Epilepsy Treatment

The preceding discussion has established the following (1) PUFAs are an important modulator of neuronal excitability (2) dietary PUFA can alter several aspects of brain function (3) the ketogenic diet is an effective therapeutic modality for some persons with epilepsy (4) the mechanism of the ketogenic diet's seizure protective effect is unknown but may involve lipid components (5) the ketogenic diet is composed of a high volume of fats that contain a variable proportion of PUFA. From these observations, can we make a leap to the hypothesis that PUFA may be an effective anticonvulsant Although such a statement would be premature, there are intriguing parallels between the ketogenic diet and PUFA that warrant further scientific scrutiny. The rationale for exploring this notion further comes from previous studies in both heart and brain. Like the antiarrhythmogenic

Microbial Polysaccharides Incorporated As Food Additives

X. campestris will grow and produce EPS on a wide range of carbon substrates including amino acids, citric acid cycle intermediates, and carbohydrates. Either ammonium salts or amino acids can be used as nitrogen sources. Various ions are needed for bacterial growth and polysaccharide synthesis. Limitation of any of the ions required for substrate uptake or for precursor or polymer synthesis can affect the yield and properties of the EPS. Xanthan formation by X. campestris resembles many other bacterial-EPS-producing systems in that polymer production is favored by a high ratio of carbon source limiting nutrients such as nitrogen. Typically, media for laboratory synthesis of xanthan contain 0.1-0.2 ammonium salt and 2-3 glucose or sucrose. Xanthan can even be produced in fairly good yield when the bacteria are grown in a simple synthetic medium composed of glucose, ammonium sulphate, and salts, but production is improved in the presence of organic nitrogen sources. The quality and the...

The Alternative Pathway of Complement a Pattern Recognition System

Diy Porch Swing Plans Free Templates

Complex carbohydrates or immune complexes (Sahu and Lambris 2001). Proteolytic cleavage of C3 between Arg726 and Ser727 by the alternative pathway convertase results in the generation of C3a, a small (9 kDa) anaphylactic peptide and a large C3b fragment (185 kDa) that remains covalently attached to the surfaces. The attached and cleaved C3b exposes binding sites for Factor B and other complement proteins. Binding of Factor B in the presence of Factor D leads to the generation of a C3bBb complex that displays enzymatic activity and can generate more C3b molecules. Consequently the step amplified activation of the alternative pathway initiates the amplification loop. This step has the capacity to generate up to 1010 C3b molecules in a period of ca. 10 - 15 min (Pangburn 1998).

Clinical Pharmacology Trials

The effects of a high-fat diet on the bioavailability of UFT LV is currently under investigation. Patients were randomized on d 3 to receive therapy with or without a high-fat meal, and then crossed-over to the alternate arm. Subsequently, patients started receiving the standard regimen of UFT 300 mg m2 plus LV 90 mg. Data so far indicate that a high-fat meal reduces plasma levels of uracil and 5-FU and elevates plasma exposures of both LV analytes. Plasma levels of tegafur were not altered significantly. Thus, it appears that UFT LV combination therapy should be taken at least 1 h prior to, or after, a meal. This dosing schedule was followed in the Phase III clinical studies.

The Dex Com Medtronic and Abbott Systems

These systems enable some patients to improve control without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia. The individual blood glucose values are not that critical what matters is that the system alerts you to the direction and the rate at which the glucose level is changing, allowing you to take corrective action. You learn how different foods get absorbed and how quickly your glucose rises after a meal. You can use this information to change the timing and the ratio of insulin for carbohydrates to control the glucose rise. The other main benefit is in alerting you to low glucose levels. Spouses and friends report that they especially appreciate the low glucose alerts. glucose monitor before making interventions such as injecting extra insulin or eating extra carbohydrates.

Eukaryotic Cell Structure And Function

Several organelles are unique to plants and plantlike protists. Chief among these is the chloroplast. The chloroplast is the site where energy from light is captured in photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the production of carbohydrates from CO2 and H2O using light energy it is the reverse reaction to respiration and is the basis for the production of almost all organic matter by the biosphere. The chloroplast and the mitochondrion have many

Dissolution of gases in sea water

Another sub-surface source of oxygen is photosynthesis. As plants combine carbon dioxide and water in the synthesis of carbohydrates using energy from the sun, a byproduct of the reaction is oxygen. Thus, when the rate at which photosynthesis is producing oxygen exceeds the rate at which it is being used up by the respiration of the pelagic organisms, oxygen concentrations build up. In some tropical seas the partial pressure of the oxygen dissolved in the water at depths of about 100 m exceeds its partial pressure in the atmosphere the water is then described as being supersaturated with oxygen. However, vertical profiles of oxygen concentrations generally show a steady

Enzymes as Digestive Aids

Carbohydrates (e.g., starches) Invertase is utilized as a digestive aid in alleviating the symptoms of sucrase-isomaltase deficiency 159 . Invertase alleviates symptoms by hydrolyzing sucrose to glucose and fructose, which are absorbed to portal blood. The enzyme can be derived from Aspergillus or Saccharomyces species 160 . a-Galactosidase, which is not produce by the body, catalyzes the hydrolysis of the a(1-6) linkages in a-galactoside carbohydrates such as melibiose and raffinose. The enzyme can be derived from selected strains of Aspergillus niger 161 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 160 . a-Galactoside carbohydrates are widely found in legumes and cruciferous vegetables including beans, peas, broccoli, and cabbage. These carbohydrates are fermented by bacteria in the colon, with the accompanying production of gas. Supplemental a-galactosidase catabolizes the oligiosaccharides prior to reaching the colon and prevents flatulence and the symptoms associated with it 1 .

Method Specificity Selectivity

One analytical technique that provides an excellent means of conducting whole detergent product analysis is that referred to as Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis. Using this technique, organic compounds are oxidized to CO2 which is then quantitated, typically by non-dispersive infrared absorption or by conductivity. TOC analysis is non-specific and offers low detection limits, potentially down to low parts-per-billion levels. Furthermore, TOC analysis is theoretically capable of quantitating any carbon-containing compound. These attributes make TOC ideal for measuring low levels of residual detergent in water rinses and on swabs with low carbon background, thus precluding the need to investigate the complexity of the detergent formulation components. Because of its broad applicability to all organic carbon-containing compounds TOC analysis has been proposed as the method of choice in validating cleaning procedures for biopharmaceutical products produced by recombinant DNA technology...

Monitoring of the Fetus in a Mother with Graves Disease

(a) Hyperemesis gravidarum is common and around 5 of cases require hospital admission because of dehydration and ketosis. Thyroid function should be checked in these patients a correlation has been established between the severity of the hyperemesis and thyroid function with an elevated FT4 and FT3

Monitoring Glucose Levels

Causes Ventilator Dyssynchrony

When you have diabetes, your glucose levels fluctuate much more than those of people without diabetes. In people without diabetes, fasting glucose levels in the morning are usually between 60 and 100 mg dl. Before each meal, the levels are below 100 mg dl. The peak values one to two hours after a meal are in the 120s and usually stay below 140, even after a meal rich in carbohydrates.

Overestimation of Carbohydrate Intake

One of the most common reasons for recurrent hypoglycemia is injecting too much insulin or taking too much oral medication for the amount of carbohydrates ingested. You may overestimate the amount of carbohydrate in the food or eat less than planned, or you may be delayed in eating after taking the insulin or medicine. For example, a number of times, I have had patients inject a dose of insulin in the car before they went to a restaurant. At the restaurant, the food did not come at the expected time, and so their glucose level went low. Another example is when patients are asked to fast for a lab test (such as a lipid profile) they do not realize that they should delay taking their insulin or diabetic medicine until after the test. Drinking alcohol in excess (see Chapter 8), especially on an empty stomach, can also cause hypoglycemia.

Pharmacologic Highlights

Never force an unconscious or semiconscious patient to drink liquids because of the risk of aspiration into the lungs. Continue to repeat the oral intake of carbohydrates until the blood glucose rises above 100 mg dL, and administer the next meal as soon as possible. If the next scheduled meal is not ready for more than 30 minutes or longer, provide the patient with a combination of carbohydrate and protein, such as V2 cup milk, 1 ounce of cheese, and three saltine crackers.

30 Day Low Carb Diet Ketosis Plan

30 Day Low Carb Diet Ketosis Plan

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