FIGURE 7 Male genitalia of a ditrysian moth (Tortricidae), venterolateral aspect with valvae reflexed. un, uncus; tg, tegumen; so, socii; gn, gnathos; tr, transtilla; ju, juxta; va, valva; sa, sacculus; vi, vinculum; ph, phallus (aedeagus); ve, vesica; co, cornuti.

visible part of the genitalia externally. The phallus, which is separately articulated and passes through the diaphragma, is sclerotized and contains the membranous vesica, the intro-mittent organ. The vesica often is armed with cornuti, which sometimes are deciduous and deposited in the female. Sperm are produced in paired testes and pass through a duct leading to the vesica and are deposited in a spermatophore produced by the male accessory glands during mating. The precise functions of most of the external, sclerotized parts of the genitalia are unknown, and they vary independently in form, being uniform in some taxa, variable in others, and thus of differing taxonomic value from one taxon to another.

In the female there are three fundamental types of genitalia. Primitive moths possess a single genital aperture near the posterior end of the abdomen, through which both copulation and oviposition occur (monotrysian). Other Lepidoptera have separate apertures for copulation and oviposition; Hepialidae and related families are exoporian (i.e., the spermatozoa are conveyed from the gonopore, or ostium bursae, to the ovipore via an external groove). All remaining families are ditrysian (i.e., having internal ducts that carry the sperm from the copulatory tract to oviduct) (Fig. 8). This feature defines the Ditrysia, comprising most of the superfamilies and more than 98% of the species. The papillae anales typically are soft and covered with sensory setae but in many taxa are modified for various kinds of oviposition, such as piercing. Both the ductus and the corpus bursae are variously modified in different taxa, the corpus often with one or more thorn-like sclerotized signa that may aid in retaining the spermatophore. Sperm are transported from the corpus bursae through the ductus seminalis to the bulla seminalis and ultimately to the oviduct. The musculature that controls the ovipositor and papillae anales, often involving extension and telescoping the abdomen, as well as the copulatory aperture, is inserted on the posterior and anterior apophyses.

INTERNAL ANATOMY Lepidoptera possess the same fundamental internal systems for breathing, blood circulation, digestion, excretion, central nerves, and endocrine functions as do other holometabolous insects (see relevant articles). Egg

With few exceptions, female Lepidoptera produce eggs that are deposited externally after fertilization in the oviduct (Figs. 9 and 10). Moth and butterfly eggs vary enormously in size, shape, surface sculpture, and arrangement during oviposition. Within lineages such as families, larger species produce larger eggs, but depending upon the family, the sizes and numbers differ greatly. For example, females of hepialids, including some of the largest moths in the world, produce vast numbers of tiny eggs (20,000-30,000 or more by a single female) that are broadcast in the habitat. Conversely some small moths and butterflies produce few, relatively large eggs.

FIGURE 8 Female genitalia of a ditrysian moth (Tortricidae), ventral aspect; broken lines represent segments of abdominal pelt., papilla anale; p.ap., posterior apophysis; a.ap, anterior apophysis; st, sterigma; o.b., ostium bursae; d.b., ductus bursae; c.b., corpus bursae; si, signum; d.s., ductus seminalis; b.s., bulla seminalis.

FIGURE 9 Shells of the flat type ditrysian moth eggs (Amorbia, Tortricidae), which in this instance are deposited overlapping, in regularly arranged imbricate masses (photograph by A. Blaker).

deposited shingle-like, with the micropylar ends protruding partway over the preceding row (Fig. 9), while upright eggs are arranged side by side, like rows of miniature barrels (Fig. 10). Usually the eggs are glued to the substrate by a secretion of the female accessory (colleterial) glands, applied within the oviduct, sometimes forming a thick, paint-like covering to egg masses. Eggs may be covered with debris collected by the female or hairs or scales from her abdomen or wings or may be surrounded by fences of upright scales, but lepidopteran eggs are not tended or guarded by the adults.

Embryonic development is related to temperature, proceeding more rapidly under warmer conditions, but the rate is physiologically and hormonally controlled in many instances. It requires 7 to 14 days in most Lepidoptera but may be

The shell (chorion) is soft during development and quickly hardens after oviposition, assuming a regular form consistent for the species and often characteristic for genera or families. The chorion may be smooth or strengthened by raised longitudinal ribs or transverse ridges or both. At one end there is a tiny pore (micropyle), through which the sperm enters, surrounded by a rosette of radiating lines or ridges. Two types of egg form are defined, those laid horizontally, with the micropyle at one end, which are usually more or less flat, and those that are upright, with the micropyle at the top. Flat eggs are prevalent in the more ancestral lineages, microlepidoptera, while most derived groups, larger moths and butterflies, have upright eggs with more rigid and ornamented chorion. Eggs of either type are laid singly or in groups; flat eggs are sometimes

FIGURE 10 Eggs of the upright type of a ditrysian moth (Arctiidae) (photograph by R. Coville).

FIGURE 11 Flattened body form of a leaf mining larva (Tischeriidae), dorsal aspect above, ventral below. ca, ambulatory calli that represent vestigial remnants of the thoracic legs.

FIGURE 11 Flattened body form of a leaf mining larva (Tischeriidae), dorsal aspect above, ventral below. ca, ambulatory calli that represent vestigial remnants of the thoracic legs.

delayed for many weeks or months in species that overwinter in the egg stage.


The head (Figs. 12 and 14) is sclerotized, usually rounded (flattened in leaf-mining species, Fig. 11), with large lateral lobes, each bearing an ellipse of usually six simple eyes (stem-mata) ventrolaterally and systematically arranged primary setae and are joined by a median suture, which is flanked by two narrow adfrontal sclerites. The mouthparts may be directed downward (hypognathous) or forward (prognathous). The labium is weak but carries a spinneret behind the mouthparts ventrally, which distributes the silk produced by modified salivary glands. The thorax has spiracles on the meso- and metathoracic segments, except in some aquatic pyraloids that have external gills. The abdomen usually has spiracles on segments 1 to 8, restricted to segments 1 to 3 or absent in some aquatic pyraloids. There are paired, ventral, fleshy, and nonsegmented leglike organs on all segments in the most primitive moths, while on others they are restricted to segments 3 to 6 (ventral prolegs) and 10 (anal prolegs), equipped with circles or bands of tiny hooks (crotchets) that aid in grasping and walking. The prolegs are fewer in Geometridae t.s.



FIGURE 12 Typical form of a ditrysian caterpillar (Cossidae), lateral aspect. h.c., head capsule; ma, mandible; st, spinneret; t.s., thoracic shield; t.l., thoracic leg; sp, spiracle; pr, abdominal proleg; a.s., anal shield;, anal proleg; cr, crotchets.

FIGURE 13 Body form of Geometridae larva (inchworm), lateral aspect, lacking prolegs on abdominal segments 1-5.

(Fig. 13) and some other groups and are lost in some borers (e.g., Prodoxidae), leaf miners (e.g., Eriocraniidae, Nepticulidae), and sand-dwelling larvae (a few Noctuidae). In some groups, A10 has a musculated anal fork used to flip frass away from the larval shelter.

There are sensory setae on the head and body integument, and the homology of their primary arrangements (chaetotaxy) (Fig. 15) can be compared in all but the few most primitive families. Their patterns have been valuable to understanding evolutionary trends and to identification of larvae, although the primary arrangement is lost or replaced by numerous secondary setae in many taxa, at least in later instars. The adfrontal sutures, arrangement of stemmata, and crotchet-bearing abdominal prolegs distinguish Lepidoptera from other insect larvae.


The head, thorax, and abdomen of the pupa resemble those of the adult and can be recognized externally (Fig. 16). The mandibles of the most primitive families are functional and

FIGURE 14 Schematic representation of the head capsule of a larval ditrysian moth, frontal aspect. ep, epicranial lobe; st, stemmata; a.s., adfrontal suture; f.s., frontal suture; fr, frons; la, labrum; ma, mandible; an, antenna.

FIGURE 12 Typical form of a ditrysian caterpillar (Cossidae), lateral aspect. h.c., head capsule; ma, mandible; st, spinneret; t.s., thoracic shield; t.l., thoracic leg; sp, spiracle; pr, abdominal proleg; a.s., anal shield;, anal proleg; cr, crotchets.

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