Theory Of Island Biogeography

Larger islands contain more species. This idea was formalized by MacArthur and Wilson in the 1960s with the development of the ETIB. This theory relates species and area by the formula S = cAz, where S is species number, A is area, c is a constant measuring overall species richness, and z measures the extent to which increases in area have diminishing returns in terms of species number. Values of z tend to vary between 0.18 and 0.35; that is, doubling the species number requires increasing the area by a factor lying between 7 and 100. The premise of the theory is that the rate of immigration decreases with increasing distance from the source, whereas the rate of extinction decreases with increasing island size. The balance of these processes results in an equilibrium number of species on any one island. As the number of resident species on an island increases, the chance of an unrepresented species arriving on that island decreases and the likelihood of extinction of any one resident species increases. The predictions of the model are as follows: (1) the number of species on an island should change little once the equilibrium has been reached; (2) there should be continual turnover of species, with some becoming extinct and others immigrating; (3) small islands should support fewer species than large islands; and (4) species richness should decline with remoteness of the island, since islands farther from the source will have lower rates of immigration.

Rigorous tests of the ETIB have been surprisingly few, and they have supported some aspects of the theory but not others. For example, Simberloff used insecticides to defaunate mangrove islands and found that species of insects and spiders accumulated to an equilibrium number. However, contrary to expectation, turnover of species was not randomly distributed among species—species of particular types were likely to colonize or go extinct. Species numbers have been found to be affected unpredictably by both area and isolation; yet other work has shown that an equilibrium does not exist, or that parameters other than area per se may dictate species richness. Such factors include habitat diversity, climatic conditions, island age, and even the status of knowledge concerning the presence of resident species. However, the theory has proven to be remarkably useful and, although it was developed for islands, it has had relevance for the study of ecological communities of many kinds.

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Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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