The Nature Of Honeydew

Honeydew has historically been a source of wonderment. For example, the honeydew produced by the coccid Trabutina mannipara on tamarisk trees may have been the "manna from heaven" on which the Israelites fed during their escape from Egypt; honeydew has also been described as "the milk of Paradise" by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. However, the biological nature of honeydew is more mundane. The phloem sap of plants contains very high concentrations of sugars, usually the disaccharide sucrose or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family. Phloem-feeding insects ingest very large amounts of sugars relative to other essential nutrients, and up to 90% of the ingested sugar may be egested via the anus, and this sugar-rich material is honeydew.

Honeydew is produced by phloem-feeding insects, not by xylem feeders. Most phloem-feeding insects are members of the homopteran suborder Sternorrhyncha, which includes aphids, whitefly, mealybugs, and psyllids, or the homopteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha, which includes planthoppers and leafhoppers. Honeydew production is not dependent on either gut anastamoses (filter chambers) or Malpighian tubules absent in many and all aphids, respectively. It is released exclusively from the anus. The cornicles of aphids (capable of discharging defensive secretions and pheromones) are not involved.

Honey Bee

Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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