The overall shape of most insect antennae is elongate and cylindrical (Fig. 1, top), although elaborations into plumose, lamellate, or pectinate forms have arisen many times in different insect lineages (Fig. 1, bottom). An elongate, cylindrical morphology, probably the ancestral condition for insect antennae, is found in fossil insects and many other arthropods. There are three parts to an insect antenna: the scape, the pedicel, and the flagellum. The scape is the first segment (most proximal) of the antenna, and it is attached to the head by a rim of flexible, intersegmental cuticle. Thus, the scape (and the rest of the antenna) can move with respect to the head. All the antennal segments are similarly joined to each other by thin, flexible cuticle.

The movements of an antenna are controlled in part by one or two pairs of muscles that attach inside the head (such

FIGURE 1 Insect antennae exhibit a variety of shapes including elongate morphologies (top) and those with lateral elaborations (bottom). [After Romoser, W. S., and Stoffolano, J. G., Jr. (1998). "The Science of Entomology," WCB/McGraw-Hill, Boston, and Loudon, C., et al. (1994). J. Exp. Biol. 193, 233-254, published by McGraw-Hill, with permission of the McGraw-Hill Companies.]

Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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