Specialized Terms

Ca2+ signaling Change in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, through the release of Ca2+ ions from intracellular stores by the opening of ligand-gated ion channels or the entry of Ca2+ ions into the cell through different types of Ca2+-selective channels located in the plasma membrane, that plays a role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell metabolism, gene expression, cytoskeletal dynamics, and neurotransmission. cyclic AMP Cyclic derivative of adenosine monophosphate that is synthesized from ATP by adenylyl cyclase. Intracellular second messenger involved in the regulation or modulation of ion channels, protein kinase activity, and gene expression. G-protein-coupled receptors Integral membrane proteins that constitute a large family of neurotransmitter, hormone, or olfactory receptors. Characterized by seven transmembrane regions. When agonists bind to these receptors trimeric GTP-binding (G) proteins are activated that then regulate the activity of intracellular secondary effectors, which change intracellular concentrations of second messengers or ion channel activity. neurohormone Small organic or peptidergic substance that is produced in neurosecretory cells. Released into the hemolymph at special regions called neurohemal organs. Transported to target tissues with the hemolymph. neuromodulator Neuroactive substance that is released by synaptic terminals. Simultaneously acts on large numbers of cells in the proximity of the releasing cell and modifies the properties of synaptic transmission and the properties of target cells. neurotransmitter Chemical substance that is released from the presynaptic endings of a neuron. Transmits information across the synaptic cleft to specific receptors located on the surface of postsynaptic cells. phosphorylation Transient, reversible posttransla-tional modification of proteins in which the terminal phosphate group of ATP is transferred to specific residues of a polypeptide by kinases and often alters the properties of the protein. second messenger Intracellular substance, such as Ca2+, cyclic AMP, inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate, that modifies or modulates cellular responses. Concentration changes in response to activation of G-protein-coupled receptors.


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Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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