Protective Barrier

The exoskeleton serves also as a water-impermeable barrier, protecting the insect against desiccation. The main part of the barrier is located in the wax-covered epicuticle.

An important function for the exoskeleton is to act as a barrier preventing microorganisms from access to interior of the animal. Soft, pliant cuticles are more easily damaged and penetrated by microorganisms than the sclerotized regions, but they contain a defense system of inactive precursors of phenoloxidases. When the cuticle is damaged, these precursors are activated by limited proteolysis to active phenoloxidases, which will oxidize tyrosine and other phenols to highly reactive quinones. The reaction products are toxic for microorganisms, and they will close minor wounds in the cuticular surface.

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Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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