Population Processes Kin Selection Drift and Shifting Balance

Because many unpalatable prey are indeed gregarious, it is easy to conclude that gregariousness allows the evolution of aposematism. The evolution of aposematism through gregariousness relies on the predator rejecting the whole group after sampling only one or few individuals. This extrapolation from one prey to the whole group is analogous to a superfast learning in the predator, which can be enhanced by conspicuousness. However, it also pays for aposematic preys to live in groups, thereby increasing their apparent density to the local predators. It is therefore not clear whether gregariousness or aposematism should evolve first to trigger the evolution of the other. Groups of gregarious larvae (Fig. 3) are usually family groups, suggesting that kinship might allow a new mutation quickly to get to a locally high frequency in such little-dispersing insects through kin selection. However, one should be aware that relatedness per se is not what favors the local rise in frequency of the gene here, but simply the local founding event by one or few family groups.

In fact, many adult aposematic adult insects are either not gregarious at all or do not aggregate in family groups. Besides, some of the most gregarious insect larvae come from the joint oviposition of several unrelated females. Although these examples could have arisen after the initial evolution of warning color through kin selection, it is more parsimonious to infer that non-kin-selection arguments can also explain the evolution of aposematism. Drift alone, particularly, followed by positive frequency dependence, is a good candidate mechanism (and in fact kin founding is only a special case of genetic drift). Indeed, when the ratio of predators to prey decreases in a locality, selection for antipredatory strategies is greatly diminished, allowing the exploration of other color pattern possibilities by the local population. Using release—recapture techniques of different warningly colored forms of H. cydno in Ecuador, D. Kapan showed that selection was relaxed when the butterflies were released in larger numbers. Therefore, the prey population could move via genetic drift above the required threshold, after which the new warning color invades the population. Positive frequency dependence has the interesting property that although it hinders the initial evolution of new patterns, it hinders the removal of any pattern once it has been established. If genetic drift in prey populations matches the fluctuations of selection pressures in time and space, new local aposematic patterns can be established frequently in different locations. These are essentially the first and second steps of the shifting balance theory of S. Wright. Competition between geographically adjacent warning color types then allows one pattern to spread to neighboring populations, like the traveling waves of color races documented in South America for H. erato or H. melpomene.

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Bee Keeping

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