Physiological Basis Of Circadian Organization

The study of the anatomical and physiological organization of circadian systems of insects has a long and productive history. The heuristic model generally used in these studies is illustrated in Fig. 2. There are four essential elements: (1) a pacemaker or oscillator that generates the primary timing signal, (2) photoreceptors for entrainment, and two coupling pathways, (3) one that mediates the flow of entrainment information from the photoreceptor to the pacemaker and (4) another that couples the pacemaker to the effector mechanisms that it controls. The model identifies several basic questions. Can the anatomical location of the circadian clock be identified? What are the pathways and mechanisms by which inputs to the pacemaking system regulate its phase and period? Finally, what are the neural and endocrine signals

Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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