Phenology

The life cycle of different insect species varies greatly, although all insects undergo the basic stages of development from egg to reproductive adult (or imago). Depending on the length of the life cycle, there is considerable variation in the number of generations per year, a phenomenon called voltinism. A uni-voltine species has one generation per year; a multivoltine species may have many generations per year. The range of variation in the Insecta is evident when one considers that the 17-year periodical cicada has one generation every 17 years, whereas whiteflies or mosquitoes may complete a generation in about 21 days. Under temperate climate conditions, generations often are discrete, but under warmer subtropical conditions they frequently overlap. The definition of temporal periodicity in an organism's developmental cycle is called phenology. The relationship between the phenology of the crop and the phenologies of its various pests is of interest in agricultural entomology. Figure 4 shows an example of such a relationship for soybean grown under conditions typical for the midwestern United States.

Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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