Nutritiondriven Evolution Life Cycles And Polymorphism

Aphid life cycles are complex and may be either monoecious or dioecious, involving holocycly or anholocycly. Because of this, aphids have evolved many specialized morphs; a multitude of confusing, often synonymous names have risen among aphid biologists, but these are minimized here.

In the simple and generalized monoecious holocyclic aphid life cycle (Fig. 1A), a single host plant species is used throughout the year and sexual morphs are produced in the fall, usually in response to decreasing daylength. The males and oviparae mate, producing genetically recombinant eggs that overwinter on the host plant and often experience high mortality. In the spring, the fundatrix emerges from the egg, matures parthenogenetically, and gives live birth to nymphs that become viviparae and continue in that reproductive mode through the summer. If the aphid group produces plant galls, the fundatrix is responsible for their production.

The viviparae may be apterae or alatae (Fig. 2), but in some groups (e.g., Drepanosiphini, some Myzocallidinae) all viviparae are alatae. The parthenogenetic reproduction of

Primary Host monoecious holocycly A fundatrix

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Bee Keeping

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