Lowmolecularweight Organic Components

Citric acid and other organic acids and organic phosphates (such as glycerol 1-phosphate and sorbitol 6-phosphate) account for much of the anion content in hemolymph from many insect species. The most abundant carbohydrate in hemolymph of most insects is the disaccharide trehalose. Transport of trehalose as an energy source for tissues is an important function of the hemolymph. Trehalose levels are hormonally regulated and can be increased through synthesis from glucose phosphate derived from glycogen stored in the fat body. Glucose may also be present in hemolymph, although generally at a lower concentration than trehalose. In some insects, diapause or exposure to low temperatures can stimulate synthesis of glycerol and sorbitol (from glycogen stored in fat body). The resulting high concentration of these compounds in hemolymph depresses the freezing point and protects the insects from damage that would occur if ice crystals were to form in hemolymph.

Hydrophobic lipoidal compounds present in hemolymph are carried by specific transport proteins. Diacylglycerol is the major transported form of lipid in most insects, but triacylglycerol, fatty acids, phospholipids, and cholesterol are also present. Pigments such as P-carotene, riboflavin, and biliverdin, which give hemolymph of many insects a characteristic yellow or green color, are also carried by specific proteins.

Free amino acids are present at high concentration (up to 200 mM) in hemolymph and make a major contribution to hemolymph osmolarity. All 20 of the amino acids found in proteins exist as free amino acids in hemolymph. Although the relative concentrations of the amino acids vary in different species, glutamine and proline are typically abundant. Proline is known to serve as an energy source for flight muscles in some species. Hemolymph may also contain some amino acids that are not found in proteins, such as P-alanine and taurine. Tyrosine, which is metabolized for use in cuticle sclerotization, often occurs in hemolymph as a conjugate with glucose, phosphate, or P-alanine, which increases its solubility. The phosphate and glucose substituents are removed from tyrosine by specific enzymes when tyrosine is needed for sclerotization. Catecholamines derived from tyrosine, which are used in cuticle sclerotization and pigmentation, are also present in hemolymph as conjugated forms.

Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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