In a broad sense, sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is rooted in the concept of ecosystem integrity and permeates all facets of human endeavor, whether economic, social, or cultural.
The scope of concerns and practices of third-level IPM as described here corresponds closely to that of sustainable development. Each emphasizes preservation of processes associated with natural ecosystems, long-term well-being of humans as members of communities, economic viability, and deployment of exogenous resources only after careful consideration. For agriculture, concepts underlying third-level IPM can be equated with concepts underlying sustainable agriculture. For both, one can expect concepts to evolve further over time.
Agricultural Entomology • Biological Control • Extension Entomology • Insecticides • Physical Control • Population Ecology • Sterile Insect Technique
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