Ipm And Sustainable Development

In a broad sense, sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is rooted in the concept of ecosystem integrity and permeates all facets of human endeavor, whether economic, social, or cultural.

The scope of concerns and practices of third-level IPM as described here corresponds closely to that of sustainable development. Each emphasizes preservation of processes associated with natural ecosystems, long-term well-being of humans as members of communities, economic viability, and deployment of exogenous resources only after careful consideration. For agriculture, concepts underlying third-level IPM can be equated with concepts underlying sustainable agriculture. For both, one can expect concepts to evolve further over time.

See Also the Following Articles

Agricultural Entomology • Biological Control • Extension Entomology • Insecticides • Physical Control • Population Ecology • Sterile Insect Technique

Further Reading

Altieri, M. A., and Nicholls, C. I. (1999). Biodiversity, ecosystem function, and insect pest management in agricultural systems. In "Biodiversity in Agroecosystems" (W. W. Collins and C. O. Qualset, eds.), pp. 69—83. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Benbrook, C. M. (1996). "Pest Management at the Crossroads." Consumers

Union, Yonkers, NY. Coop, L. B., and Croft, B. A. (1995). Neoseiulus fallacis: Dispersal and biological control of Tetranychus urticae following minimal inoculations into a strawberry field. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 19, 31—43. Dent, D. (1995). "Integrated Pest Management." Chapman & Hall, New York.

Higley, L. G., and Pedigo, L. P. (1993). Economic injury level concepts and their use in sustaining environmental quality. Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 46,

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