Integumental Glands

Epidermal glands are present in many types of integument; they often consist of a single cell surrounding a cavity, which functions as a product reservoir and is connected to the cuticular surface by a small duct. Glands of this type are assumed to be responsible for forming and maintaining the cement layer, which after ecdysis is spread as a protective layer on top of the epicuticular wax layer. Other integu-mental glands of this type produce various chemical defense secretions, which may be forcibly ejected when the insect is disturbed.

Integumental glands also may consist of epidermal cells without a cavity and duct, but with direct contact to the inner surface of the cuticle, through which the secretion passes. Often the secretions of such glands function as pheromones, playing a part in the communication between individuals.

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Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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