Epidermal glands are present in many types of integument; they often consist of a single cell surrounding a cavity, which functions as a product reservoir and is connected to the cuticular surface by a small duct. Glands of this type are assumed to be responsible for forming and maintaining the cement layer, which after ecdysis is spread as a protective layer on top of the epicuticular wax layer. Other integu-mental glands of this type produce various chemical defense secretions, which may be forcibly ejected when the insect is disturbed.
Integumental glands also may consist of epidermal cells without a cavity and duct, but with direct contact to the inner surface of the cuticle, through which the secretion passes. Often the secretions of such glands function as pheromones, playing a part in the communication between individuals.
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