FIGURE 15 Chaetotaxy (setal map) of a larval ditrysian moth (Tortricidae); each rectangle represents one body segment from mid dorsum (upper border) to mid venter (lower border). I, II, pro- and mesothoracic segments; 1, 2, etc., abdominal segments. Setal groups: D, dorsal; DL, dorsolateral; L, lateral; SV, subventral; V, ventral; t.s., thoracic shield; a.s., anal shield; sp, spiracle; pi, pinacula, which are raised and often pigmented.

used to cut open the cocoon preceding eclosion of the adult. In other moths the head is sometimes provided with a beak or other armature that assists in the eclosion process. The appendages of the head and thorax are each encased in cuticle and in most Lepidoptera are fused to the venter of the body, with the wing cases wrapped around, adjacent to the antennae and mouthparts. Abdominal segments 7 to 10 are fused. In the more ancestral families some of the other

FIGURE 16 Pupae of ditrysian moths, ventral aspect. (A) Tortricidae, with abdominal segments 4-7 movable, enabling pupal movement forward at emergence. (B) Ethmiidae, with pupal movement restricted to flexible segments 5-6, and the pupa remains in place at emergence, a characteristic of Gelechioidea. (C) Noctuidae (Obtectomera) with all segments immobile. 1.p., labial palpus; ma, maxilla including galeae (haustellum); p.f., prothoracic femur; m.l., mesothoracic leg; m.t., metathoracic tarsus; an, antenna; fw, forewing; A3-10, abdominal segments 3-10; cr, cremaster; le, leglike extensions of the 9th abdominal segment bearing hooked setae that anchor the pupa in lieu of a cremaster (A, C redrawn from Mosher, 1916).

segments are movable (Fig. 16A), usually provided with backwardly directed spines or spurs, and the pupa wriggles forward to protrude from the cocoon or burrow just before moth eclosion. Gelechioidea and derived moths (Obtectomera, Fig. 1) and butterflies are obtect, with fused abdominal segments (Figs. 16B and 16C). They remain in place, and adult eclosion occurs along a silken track or other means prepared by the larva or directly from the pupa, in butterflies and some moth groups that do not spin cocoons. Many species have a cremaster, hooked setae at the tip of the abdomen that anchor the pupa inside the cocoon or at the terminus of a silk emergence track, enabling pressure from the emerging adult to break the pupal shell. Others lack the cremaster but are held within a tight cocoon, in an earthen cell, or by a silk girdle. The integument is soft, smooth, and green or whitish when first formed but soon hardens and turns brown in most Lepidoptera. Those that pupate exposed, including butterflies, Pterophoridae, and some Gelechioidea, are mottled green or brownish and often have prominent spines or ridges that aid in camouflage.

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Bee Keeping

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