^Including Melanamerellinae. ^Including Pentageniinae and Ichthybotinae. Including Exeuthyplociinae. ^Including Dicercomyzinae and Machadorythinae. Austremerellidae.

Compiled with the assistance of Jean-Luc Gattolliat (Lausanne) and Jan Peters and Michael D. Hubbard (Tallahassee).

Hymenoptera. In species with a long emergence period or with a bivoltine life cycle (having two summer emergence periods), early emerging females are larger and therefore more fecund than those emerging later.

Mating and Swarming

Swarming in adults is a male activity, apart from the Caenidae and Tricorythidae, where both males and females may participate. The females fly into these swarms, and mating occurs almost immediately and usually in flight. Swarming may take place over the water itself, over the shore area, or even away from the water. Most swarms are positioned according to terrain markers such as areas of vegetation, the shoreline, and trees. The time of swarming varies considerably, although dusk is the most common time of day in temperate regions.

Parthenogenesis has been reported in about 50 mayfly species, although it is not obligatory as a rule.


The majority of mayflies, including most Ephemeridae, Heptageniidae, and Leptophlebiidae, oviposit by descending to the water and releasing a few eggs at a time by dipping their abdomen into the water. Species of Ephemerella, Siphlonurus, and Centroptilum, however, release all their eggs in a single batch that separates immediately on contact with water. In Habroleptoides and some Heptageniidae the female rests on a stone above the water, and dips her abdomen into the water to lay the eggs. This is taken a stage further in several species of Baetis in which the female actually goes underwater and lays her eggs on suitable substrate, often under stones.

Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

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