In The Beginning

The history of life on earth reaches back some 4 billion years. From this beginning the long evolutionary trail unwound. Along the way, 99% of the forms that appeared met with extinction.

The great exterminations that have occurred since the appearance of insects in the Devonian period, 400 mya, revealed insects' remarkable survival qualities. Insects witnessed the last of the trilobites that preceded them by 175 million years. By the time the dinosaurs appeared in the Triassic period, 210 mya, the major orders of insects existing today were already well established. Dinosaurs became extinct 66 mya, leaving a niche occupied in time by mammals. The mammals, in turn, provided a niche for insects, offering furry cover and warm meals. The disappearance of the dinosaurs coincided with a great radiation of insects based on insects' symbiosis with flowering plants. For the past 150 million years, the flowering plants and insects have honed their intricate coevolution, which accounts for their immense biodiversity on which human habitability of the earth depends.

Insects have withstood trial by ice and fire, meteorite strikes, volcanic eruptions, global dust veils, acid rain, and continental upheavals. This evolutionary experience is encoded in their DNA and attests to the advantage of their small size, external skeleton, flight, metamorphosis, and specialized systems of reproduction. These are significant credentials in insects' rivalry with Homo sapiens, a species that draws on an evolutionary history of a scant 7 million years.

Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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