Human Influence

Humans increasingly affect the distribution and abundance of mayflies and, by virtue of their widespread occurrence and importance in aquatic food webs and particularly in fish production, mayflies have been widely used as indicators of water quality. Mayflies often occur in habitats of a particular trophic status, and increased eutrophication due to human activities can lead to the reduction or even extinction of certain species. Baetis species are often among the most tolerant of mayflies to pollution. In North America, the use of mayflies as indicators of water quality has not escaped attention. The mass emergence of burrowing mayflies from Lake Erie and the Mississippi River has provided a useful barometer of water quality. Organic and nutrient enrichment of Lake Erie in the 1940s and 1950s led to an increase in the intensity and frequency of mass emergence of Hexagenia until 1953, when prolonged periods of oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion (the lower layer of cold water in lakes that stratify) caused the population to crash to virtual extinction. However, improvement of water quality has now led to a resurgence of emerging swarms. Mayflies, particularly Hexagenia, have been used in numerous bioassays for various pollutants. Pesticides also affect nontarget organisms such as mayflies, and Canadian studies in connection with blackfly control have demonstrated catastrophic drift and reduced biomass in mayfly populations over long distances in rivers treated with methoxychlor. Although most mayflies are adversely affected by petroleum products, a few species may show small increases owing to the extensive algal growth that often occurs on oiled substrates.

Acidification of fresh waters is a major threat to mayfly communities. Many mayflies are affected adversely by low pH, and emergence is a particularly critical period. The genus Baetis seems to be particularly sensitive and is often replaced by less sensitive Leptophlebia and Siphlonurus.

River and lake regulation (e.g., by impoundment in reservoirs) for water supply and power can have profound effects on the mayfly community, especially when there is a hypolimnion drain. For example, an increase in winter temperatures and a fall in summer temperatures may remove obligatory life cycle thresholds, leading to extinction. Fecundity may also be influenced by changes in water temperature. In reservoirs themselves, lentic (still water) conditions and increased water level fluctuations usually produce a reduced mayfly fauna, although there may be an increase in the abundance of burrowing and silt-dwelling species. The flooding of new areas can also create new habitats for mayflies, and in many of the large African reservoirs the mayfly Povilla adusta has developed large populations, which burrow into the submerged trees and play an important role in tree breakdown. It has recently been demonstrated that ovipositing mayflies are deceived by asphalt roads because the strongly polarized light reflected from the surface mimics a water surface, thus representing a threat to successful reproduction. Climate change scenarios involve changes in water temperatures, which in turn will affect many of the facets of mayfly biology and lead to changes in mayfly communities.

See Also the Following Articles

Aquatic Habitats • Pollution • Respiratory System

Further Reading

Alba-Tercedor, J., and Sanchez-Ortega, A. (eds.). (1991). "Overview and

Strategies of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera." Sandhill Crane Press,

Gainesville, FL.

Brittain, J. E. (1982). Biology of mayflies. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 27, 119-147.

Campbell, I. C. (ed.). (1990). "Mayflies and Stoneflies: Life Histories and Biology." Kluwer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Ciborowski, J. H., and Corkum, L. D. (eds.). (1995). "Current Directions in Research on Ephemeroptera." Canadian Scholars' Press, Toronto.

Florida Agricultral & Mechanical University,

Hubbard, M. D. (1990). "Mayflies of the World—A Catalogue of the Family and Genus Group Taxa (Insecta: Ephemeroptera)." Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville FL.

Landolt, P., and Sartori, M. (eds.). (1997). "Ephemeroptera & Plecoptera: Biology—Ecology—Systematics." MTL Fribourg, Switzerland.

McCafferty, P. (1981). "Aquatic Entomology." Science Books International, Boston.

Purdue University, Department of Entomology. http://www.entm.purdue. edu/Entomology/research/mayfly/mayfly.html

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