Herbivoreplant Interactions

Long-term experiments with chemical control to eliminate insect herbivores indicated an average annual yield loss of

15%, and nematode control increased biomass by 12 to 28%. The biomass losses appeared to be mainly the result of frit fly and other stem-boring Diptera, which kill the central grass shoots, root-feeding wireworms (Agriotes spp., Elateridae), root-feeding scarabeid grubs, the range caterpillar Hemileuca oliviae, armyworms (Spodoptera spp.), grass worms (Crambus spp.), the Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex), and leatherjackets (Tipula spp., in wetter soils). Planthoppers (Auchenorrhyncha), grass bugs (genera Labops, Irbisia, Leptopterna) and grasshoppers (Acrididae), and plant-feeding nematodes may also be important pests. In Sweden, the grass-feeding antler moth Cerapteryx graminis may reach densities of 100 to 1500 individuals per square meter; their corresponding effects on grass biomass consequently enhance herb populations. In the years following C. graminis outbreaks, shifts from herb dominance to renewed grass dominance show effects of competitive release and the return to competitive exclusion.

In temperate grasslands, the below-ground standing crop of insects is 2 to 10 times greater than the aboveground insect mass, although the effects of below-ground insects remain largely unseen, unless scarabeid beetle larvae or nematodes cause heavy decreases in shoot growth or even kill grass over large areas. In a latitudinal gradient across North American grasslands, root-to-shoot ratios vary from 2:1 to 13:1, with high values in cooler climates; tropical grasslands have even lower ratios (0.2:1 to 2.6:1). As can be expected from these data, the soil fauna is less abundant in tropical savannas and forests compared to temperate ecosystems. Earthworms usually dominate the soil biomass, but in the tropics, termites and ants are particularly important. These below-ground species can be a key in nutrient dynamics determining plant growth and aboveground plant—insect interactions.

Grasses are well adapted to herbivory and, in general, tolerate grazing better than herb species; therefore enhanced grazing pressure increases the fraction of grasses in pastures. The high resistance, tolerance, and compensatory ability of grasses are the result of (1) the generally high silicate content, lignification of vascular bundles, and additional sclerenchyma in mature leaves that make foliage hard to chew and digest; (2) the rapid induction of dormant buds that develop into lateral shoots following defoliation or destruction of apical meristems, which is based on the below-ground nutrient reserves; (3) the location of meristematic zones that are in many instances near the ground and not at the top of the plant, where they would be better accessible to grazers; and (4) the compensatory photosynthesis and growth stimulation by bovine saliva, which may also play a role. However, the concept of a herbivore-optimization curve or even grass-grazer mutualisms overestimates the compensatory abilities of grasses and grasslands.

Grazing causes much sprouting from dormant buds and converts tall canopies into shorter and denser grazing lawns. Heavily grazed pooid populations are smaller and have higher silicate concentrations, exhibiting ecotypic variation as a result of different grazing histories. The mitigation of predation by the highly silicified grasses is presumably not confined to mammals, because the mandibles of many grass-chewing insects are adapted to biting and grinding and are analogous to the teeth of grazing mammals. Although the evolution of siliceous grass leaves appears to be driven by many stress factors (including drought and fungal attack), both mammal and insect herbivory may have been important factors.

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Bee Keeping

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