Future Use Of Biological Control

Biological control can be implemented through four different approaches: conservation of existing natural enemies, importation of new species for permanent establishment, temporary natural enemy augmentation, and use of microbial pesticides. The first two methods are most widely applicable and have produced the greatest benefits. Conservation biological control is the foundation of all insect control. Importation biological control is the method that is appropriate to combat exotic invasive pests (whose numbers are large and increasing). Augmentative biological control is limited by cost factors and largely restricted to high-value crops in greenhouses. Microbial pesticides are niche market tools useful in IPM programs but are limited by high production costs or the narrow host ranges of the pathogens. Biological control's greatest strengths are in public sector applications (conservation, importation) rather than private sector approaches (augmentative, microbial pesticides). Expanded use of biological control will require increased commitment of public resources and recognition that publicly supported programs are more effective for biological control implementation.

See Also the Following Articles

Agricultural Entomology • Genetically Modified Plants • Host Seeking by Parasitoids • Integrated Pest Management • Physical Control of Insect Pests • Predation

Further Reading

Barbosa, P. (ed.) (1998). "Conservation Biological Control." Academic Press, San Diego.

Bellows, T. S., and Fisher, T. W. (eds.) (1999). "Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications of Biological Control." Academic Press, San Diego.

Clausen, C. P. (ed.) (1978). "Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: A World Review." Agricultural Handbook 480. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

DeBach, P., and Rosen, D. (1991). "Biological Control by Natural Enemies." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Follett, P. A., and Duan, J. J. (eds.) (2000). "Nontarget Effects of Biological Control." Kluwer, Boston.

Gaugler, R., and Kaya, H. K. (eds.) (1990). "Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Biological Control." CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Gurr, G., and Wratten, S. (eds.). (2000). "Biological Control: Measures of Success." Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Jervis, M., and Kidd, N. (eds.) (1996). "Insect Natural Enemies: Practical Approaches to Their Study and Evaluation." Chapman & Hall, London.

Julien, M. H., and Griffiths, M. W. (eds.) (1998). "Biological Control of Weeds, a World Catalogue of Agents and their Target Weeds." 4th ed. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K.

Pickett, C. H., and Bugg, R. L. (eds.) (1998). "Enhancing Biological Control: Habitat Management to Promote Natural Enemies of Agricultural Pests." University of California Press, Berkeley.

Tanada, Y., and Kaya, H. K. (1993). "Insect Pathology." Academic Press, San Diego.

Van Driesche, J., and Van Driesche, R. G. (2000). "Nature Out of Place: Biological Invasions in a Global Age." Island Press, Washington, DC.

Van Driesche, R. G., and Bellows, T. S. (1996). "Biological Control." Chapman & Hall, New York.

Van Driesche, R. G., and Hoddle, M. S. (2000). Classical arthropod biological control: Measuring success, step by step. In "Biological Control: Measures of Success." (G. Gurr and S. Wratten, eds.), pp. 39—75. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

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