Functions In Learning And Memory

Biogenic amines are involved in different forms of learning and memory formation in Drosophila and honey bees. However, it has not been unequivocally proven that the same biogenic amines serve identical functions in both species. Research on the neuronal and molecular bases of learning and memory over the past two decades in insects has focused on the mushroom bodies and antennal lobes of the brain. These two structures are involved primarily in processing of olfactory stimuli. Experimental evidence suggests that DA signals the presence of reinforcers and modulates intrinsic mushroom body neurons during conditioning in Drosophila. Thus DA could trigger signaling cascades that affect the storage of information about the conditioned stimulus.

In the honey bee, OA appears to be the modulatory transmitter which conveys information about rewarding sucrose stimuli and induces medium- to long-term modifications in interneurons during associative olfactory learning. Electrical stimulation of an identified octopaminergic cell, the ventral unpaired median VUMmx1 neuron, can substitute for the sucrose reward during olfactory conditioning. This neuron has extensive arborizations in different brain regions, including the antennal lobes and the mushroom bodies. Microinjections of OA into these two neuropiles of the bee brain confirmed that OA in fact induces associative learning.

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Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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