In a sense, the function of associative learning is obvious. Animals learn by association to orient toward stimuli predicting positively rewarding resources (such as sugar, pollen, food plant, hosts) and away from stimuli predicting negatively rewarding events (shock, heat, toxins, predators). Likewise, habituation is a means for reducing energy-wasteful, time-consuming responses to meaningless stimuli. In either case, however, learning is needed only if the appropriate responses cannot be predicted without benefit of experience, else an insect could respond (or not respond) innately. Even in an unpredictable environment, whether learning yields higher fitness than innate behavior depends on the relative costs of learning. A robust assessment of costs and benefits of learning has proved elusive, perhaps in part because individual fitness in nature is especially difficult to measure in Drosophila and honey bees, the systems in which learning processes and mechanisms have been best studied.
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Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?