David L. Wood
University of California, Berkeley
Andrew J. Storer
Michigan Technological University, Houghton
Forest habitats exhibit extraordinary diversity. Within them are complex assemblages of species, and myriad interactions occur among these species. Forest habitats comprise not only forested landscapes but also associated lakes, streams, and meadows. All orders of insects can be found in forested habitats. Even insects that occur in salt water can be found in some forest habitats, such as in tropical mangrove forests. All feeding habits are thus represented, that is, scavengers (especially in soils and beneath the bark of dead trees) and phytophagous, entomophagous, and parasitic species. In California, over 5000 species of insect inhabit oak forests alone. In this article we give greatest emphasis to those orders that feed on trees and the predators and parasitoids that consume these phytophagous species. Insects found primarily in soils, lakes, and streams; those that feed on other vegetation found in forests; and those that parasitize other animals are considered elsewhere in this encyclopedia.
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