Timothy J. Bradley

University of California, Irvine

Excretion is the elimination from the body of excess ions, water, and metabolic wastes. As in all organisms, excretion in insects serves to promote the appropriate regulation (homeostasis) of the intracellular environment as the key to organismal well-being and survival. Regulation of the intracellular environment depends in turn on appropriate regulation of the extracellular fluids. In insects, these extracellular fluids are contained in the hemolymph and in the interstitial fluids surrounding the cells. Excretion therefore refers to the processes by which wastes, as well as excess ions and water, are eliminated from the hemolymph. Wastes produced in the cells and transported into the hemolymph are concentrated and excreted by the excretory organs.

Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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