Endocrine Control Of Fat Body Metabolism

Neuroendocrine secretions from brain and ganglia, ecdy-steroids (molting hormones), JHs, and the myriad corpora cardiaca neurosecretions affect the metabolic state of the adipocytes. These endocrine secretions are strongly influenced by stimuli from internal and external environments, and they function to coordinate and integrate crucial metabolic activities involved in molting, growth, metamorphosis, and reproduction. The fat body is a target tissue for endocrine regulation as is illustrated shortly. Stored glycogen and proteins are mobilized during the molting process to form the newly synthesized cuticular chitin—protein complex. The blood level

Prepupal period ^

At metamorphosis

Cell remodeling ^

Adult stage ^

FIGURE 1 Exchange of stored reserves between fat body cells and hemolymph during the life cycle of holometabolous insects. Asterisk indicates that later, as stem cells are differentiated into adult fat body cells, a buildup of reserves occurs.

formed, nutrients are reabsorbed. In contrast, in lepidopteran species in which cell remodeling occurs, a status quo prevails in that fat body cells in adults are depleted of reserve materials, which are used for locomotion and reproduction.

See Also the Following Articles

Excretion • Juvenile Hormone • Metabolism • Vitellogenesis Further Reading

Dean, R. L., Locke, M., and Collins, J. (1985). Structure of the fat body. In "Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology," Vol. 3 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), pp. 155-210. Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K. Haunerland, N. H., and Shirk, P. D. (1995). Regional and functional differentiation in the insect fat body. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 40, 121-145. Keeley, L. L. (1985). Physiology and biochemistry of the fat body. In "Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology" Vol. 3 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I, Gilbert, eds.), pp. 211-248. Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K. Law, J. H., and Wells, M. A. (1989). Insects as biochemical models. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 16355-16638.

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