June beetle grubs are susceptible to various microbial pathogens, including specific strains of the milky disease bacterium Paenibacillus popilliae. Wasps and flies of several kinds parasitize the larvae or beetles, and predatory insects (e.g., ants, carabids) feed on the eggs and young larvae. The grubs also attract vertebrate predators, including insectivorous birds, skunks, raccoons, moles, and armadillos. In the past, farmers were advised to clean June beetles out of heavily infested fields by pasturing the land with hogs, which would root out and eat the grubs. Today this objective is more typically accomplished through crop rotation, or with soil insecticides.
See Also the Following Articles
Coleoptera • Hibernation • Soil Habitats
King, A. B. S. (1984). Biology and identification of white grubs of economic importance in Central America. Trop. PestManag. 30, 36—50. Luginbill, P., and Painter, H. R. (1953). May beetles of the United States and Canada. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1060. Pike, K. S., Rivers, R. L., Oseto, C. Y., and Mayo, Z. B. (1976). A world bibliography of the genus Phyllophaga. University of Nebraska Miscellaneous Publication 31. Vittum, P. J., Villani, M. G., and Tashiro, H. (1999). "Turfgrass Insects of the United States and Canada." 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. Ritcher, P. O. (1966). "White Grubs and Their Allies." Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.
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