June beetles average from 12 to over 25 mm in length, with a cylindrical or oblong body shape, dense hair on the metaster-num, and lamellate antennae that end in a three-segmented club that is longer in males than in females. Each tarsal claw bears a small tooth near the middle. Coloration ranges from tan to mahogany to dark chocolate brown. The elytra of some species are hairy, whereas in others they are nearly smooth.

Larvae are typical scarab grubs: cream colored, C-shaped when feeding or at rest, with a brown head capsule, with

FIGURE 1 (A) A typical June beetle, Phyllophaga sp. (B) June beetle larva, or white grub.

chewing mouthparts and three pairs of jointed legs (Fig. 1B). The hind part of the abdomen usually appears dark because of ingested food and soil. The ventral surface of the last abdominal segment bears two parallel rows of short spines in a pattern that resembles a zipper. There are three instars. Full-sized grubs of most species are 25 to 38 mm in length.

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