Ladybugs are beetles of the family Coccinellidae. This family consists of about 5200 known species of small to medium-sized, oval, oblong oval, or hemispherical beetles. The dorsal surface is convex and the ventral surface is flat. The forewings, or elytra, are strong and are often brightly colored, sporting two or more strongly contrasting colors in a bold pattern. Not all species are red with black spots. Almost every color of the rainbow is found as the predominant color of some species of ladybug. These ground colors are usually allied to a second color, which differs starkly from the first, particularly with respect to tone. Thus, ladybugs may be red and black, or yellow and black, or black and white, or dark blue and orange, and so on. Sometimes the spots are replaced with stripes or a checkered pattern. The elytra cover the membranous flight wings, which are folded away when the beetle is not in flight.

THE LADYBUG LIFE CYCLE Ladybugs through the Year

The life cycle of ladybugs has four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The length and timing of the different stages varies greatly with geographic region. Mating usually occurs when food is available, and eggs are laid in the vicinity of larval food. In contrast to many other insects, the two feeding stages (larvae and adults) usually have the same diet. In regions with winter and summer seasons, reproduction usually occurs in late spring and early summer. In some climates, reproduction can continue throughout the summer, with several generations being produced. However, in places with hot summers, some ladybugs have a dormant period (or aestivation) in the hottest months, sometimes having a second period of reproduction in the fall. The winter is generally unfavorable for ladybug reproduction, and ladybugs usually pass the winter as dormant adults. In wet/dry seasonal climates, particularly in the tropics, many ladybugs are dormant through the dry season, beginning to reproduce at the start of the wet season when food becomes more readily available.

The rate of development of ladybugs, like that of other insects, depends largely on ambient temperature. In a species such as Adalia bipunctata in a temperate climate, the egg stage lasts from about 4 to 8 days; larvae feed for about 3 weeks. When they stop feeding, they form a humped prepupa and shed the final larval skin about 24 h later to produce a pupa that is attached to the substrate at its posterior. The pupal stage lasts 7 to 10 days. When the adult emerges, the elytra are pale yellow and unpatterned. Hemolymph is pumped into the elytra and flight wings to expand them, and the color patterns develop over the next day or two. Adult ladybugs live for up to a year.

The eggs of most species of ladybugs are bright yellow and are laid upright in batches (Fig. 1) in the vicinity of food. Newly hatched larvae habitually eat any remaining eggs in their clutch and then disperse to find food. For many species, this food is in the form of small sapsucking insects such as aphids or coccids. However, some species feed on fungi, while others are true vegetarians, eating the foliage of plants. The larvae (Fig. 2) are usually elongate, and the ratio of leg length to body length is variable, being correlated to diet. The pupa (Fig. 3) is usually formed on the host plant. Both larvae and pupae may be brightly colored and patterned.

Generalist and Specialist Ladybugs

Broadly, different species of ladybugs can be split into gener-alists and specialists on the basis of their dietary array and the range of habitats that they live in. Most of the commonest species feed on a variety of aphid species and move from one host plant to another as aphid colonies wax and wane. However, some species have a specialized diet and so are confined

FIGURE 2 Larva of A. bipunctata.

to specific habitats where their food occurs. This is true of some of the aphid feeders, as well as for many of the species that feed on other diets, such as coccids, mildews, the leaves of plants or the pollen, and nectar of flowers, as their principal food. Many of these species have evolved precise adaptations to their diets and habitats.

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