which are always single points rather than patches, have less scatter than those of nectar foragers. However, these results differ from those reported by Will Towne on the same issue, and this remains a question of current research.

The evolutionary origin of the honey bee dance remains incompletely discerned. All species of Apis perform recruitment dances, though there are interspecific variations in a number of the aspects discussed earlier. The stingless bees (Meliponini), the bumble bees (Bombini), and the orchid bees (Euglossini) are the closest relatives of Apis, but the phylogeny of these different taxa within the Apidae remains controversial. Stingless bees are highly social and have a variety of mechanisms of recruitment that may provide possible antecedents to the dance language, but a determinination of how the current form of the dance language might have arisen from these components must await both a greater understanding of recruitment mechanisms within the stingless bees and a more firmly established phylogeny within the family Apidae.

See Also the Following Articles

Apis Species • Feeding Behavior • Orientation • Recruitment Communication

Further Reading

Dyer, F. C. (2002). The biology of the dance language. Annu Rev. Entomol. 47, 917-949.

Frisch, K. von. (1967). "The Dance Language and Orientation of Bees."

Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Moffett, M. W. (1990). Dance of the electronic bee. Natl. Geogr. 177(1), 135-140.

Seeley, T. D. (1995). "The Wisdom of the Hive: The Social Physiology of Honey Bee Colonies." Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

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