Although testing of these ideas, at least in the context of animal color patterns and their camouflage, has not been completed, Endler has also performed experiments with guppies that dramatically illustrate the power of natural selection to lead to the evolution of effective crypsis. Male guppies can be very colorful with a patterning of bright spots and patches on their lateral flanks and fins. Laboratory experiments in which females can choose whether to mate with males of different patterns show that there is female preference for the more brightly colored males. In the wild in Trinidad, there is a correlation between the degree of color patterning on males in a population and the presence of predatory fish and invertebrates ranging from weak to strong mortality factors on guppies. Male fish are colorful and brightly patterned when either no predators or only weak predators are present, whereas they are drab and unpatterned brown fish when strong predators such as certain cichlids are present. A series of experimental pools with natural backgrounds in a greenhouse was established to examine the efficacy of natural selection on crypsis in this system. Endler showed that guppy populations with the weak predators showed no divergence over subsequent generations in their average color pattern; in contrast, in those pools to which strong predators were added the guppies showed a marked and progressive decline in the brightness and spottiness of the males. This result was highly consistent with selection favoring a more effective crypsis through a lower conspicuousness and improved background matching of the prey populations. In the absence of such strong predators, the balance of sexual selection through female choice and of natural selection by visually hunting predators favors colorful males because they survive to maturity and then achieve a higher mating success than their less colorful competitors.
Such a balance of selection on animal color patterns is probably the norm in natural populations. Thus, in animal communication, a color pattern is usually a compromise between being conspicuous to conspecifics and being poorly visible to predators (or prey). Indeed, one of the potential disadvantages of adopting crypsis as the primary means of survival is that it almost inevitably ties the organism down to a sedentary style of life at least during the hours of daylight. In contrast, when organisms are distasteful and adopt a conspicuous, aposematic lifestyle or when they evolve Batesian mimicry to resemble such warningly colored species, there is no such disadvantage associated with daytime activity.
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