Control And Eradication

Sound cultural practices combined with chemical control relying on numerous compounds has been the traditional practice for combating boll weevil. Coordinated eradication efforts in the United States have been quite effective. The eradication effort in the United States is based on three major activities: mapping all cotton fields, evaluating weevil presence in each field with pheromone traps, and applying control treatments. The program consists of a series of sequential expansions and usually lasts 3 to 5 years in any particular area. The program relies on intensive, carefully coordinated, ground and aerial treatments of ultra low volume malathion (almost exclusively), concentrated over one to three seasons, in response to predetermined numbers of weevils caught in pheromone traps. The program started in 1983 in the Carolinas and has expanded to parts of all of the cotton-growing states in the country. Active eradication has been completed in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Arizona, California, and in some parts of the other cotton-growing states. It is projected to be completed in 2005. In the southeastern states, where active eradication has been completed, a remarkable increase in cotton production has occurred. When completed, nationwide eradication will result in substantial economic and environmental benefits throughout the areas once plagued by the boll weevil.

See Also the Following Articles

Agricultural Entomology • Coleoptera • Migration • Regulatory Entomology

Further Reading

Burke, H. R. (1997). Early boll weevil fighters. Southwest Entomol. 22, 248-277.

Burke, H. R., Clark, W. E., Cate, J. R., and Fryxell, P. A. (1986). Origin and dispersal of the boll weevil. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 32, 228-238. Haney, P. B., (exec. ed.) (2001). "History of Boll Weevil Eradication in the United States." National Cotton Council Series. Herff-Jones, Montgomery, AL.

Pfadt, R. E. (1985). Insects pests of cotton In "Fundamentals of Applied Entomology. 4th ed. (R. E. Pfadt, ed.). Macmillan, New York.

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