B K Mitchell

University of Alberta

Insects are acutely aware of many aspects of their environment, as anyone knows who has tried to catch a fly perched on a slice of pizza. In the chemical realm, and depending on the chemicals and insects involved, insects are often outstandingly sensitive. The most famous and best-studied aspects of chemoreception in insects are mate recognition and finding. Like many, if not most animals, insects produce chemicals called pheromones that allow individuals of one sex in a species to recognize and find individuals of the opposite sex. Usually the female produces a mixture of chemicals to which the male responds. Other important, life-or-death decisions largely based on chemicals include choice of site for egg laying, decisions about what to eat and what to avoid, and communications about immediate danger. How insects taste and smell is therefore of great interest and, given that many insects are serious agricultural pests and vectors of disease, research in this area is both fundamental and practical.

As with most physiological systems, model animals are vitally important for scientists who explore the specific workings of what is always a complex series of interactions. For studies of insect chemoreception, adult moths and caterpillars, flies, cockroaches, and leaf beetles have provided some of the best models. Large moths such as the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, have been essential in studies of pheromones, whereas flies such as the black blowfly, Phormia regina, caterpillars such as the cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and M. sexta, and beetles such as the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, have helped unravel the role of chemoreception in food and oviposition-related behavior.

For an insect to sense and respond appropriately to the presence of a chemical, or more often a mixture of chemicals, requires a large number of cuticular, cellular, and molecular processes. Because insects are covered in cuticle, it is appropriate to begin there. The cells involved include the sensory cells themselves and closely associated accessory cells whereas the molecules include a wide array of extracellular, intracellular, and membrane-bound proteins. The processes involved in tasting and smelling include sampling the environment, transport of stimulus molecules to receptors, reception, transduction, coding, and transmission to the higher brain centers. This article looks at both gustation (taste) and olfaction (smell), though in many areas detailed knowledge is more complete for smell than it is for taste.

Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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