Auchenorrhyncha

(Cicadas, Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers)

C. H. Dietrich

Illinois Natural History Survey

The hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha is the group of sapsucking insects comprising the modern superfamilies, Cercopoidea (spittlebugs, Fig. 1), Cicadoidea (cicadas, Fig. 2), Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers, Fig. 3), and Fulgoroidea (Fig. 4) Together, these groups include over 40,000 described species. Morphologically, Auchenorrhyncha differ from other Hemiptera in having the antennal flagellum

FIGURE 1 Cercopoidea: spittlebugs and froghoppers: (1) Tomaspis sp. (Cercopidae), Mexico, (2) Machaerota sp. (Machaerotidae), Vietnam, (3) Paraphilaenus parallelus (Aphrophoridae), Kyrgyzstan, (4) Clastoptera obtusa (Clastopteridae), Illinois, U.S.A., (5) spittle mass of P spumarius nymph, Illinois, U.S.A.

FIGURE 1 Cercopoidea: spittlebugs and froghoppers: (1) Tomaspis sp. (Cercopidae), Mexico, (2) Machaerota sp. (Machaerotidae), Vietnam, (3) Paraphilaenus parallelus (Aphrophoridae), Kyrgyzstan, (4) Clastoptera obtusa (Clastopteridae), Illinois, U.S.A., (5) spittle mass of P spumarius nymph, Illinois, U.S.A.

FIGURE 2 Cicadoidea: cicadas: (6) a hairy cicada, Tettigarcta crinita (Tettigarctidae), Australia, (7) Melampsalta calliope (Cicadidae), Illinois, U.S.A., (8) a periodical cicada, Magicicada cassini, with a 13-year life cycle, Illinois, U.S.A., (9) a dog day cicada, Tibicen sp., molting into the adult stage, Illinois, U.S.A.

FIGURE 2 Cicadoidea: cicadas: (6) a hairy cicada, Tettigarcta crinita (Tettigarctidae), Australia, (7) Melampsalta calliope (Cicadidae), Illinois, U.S.A., (8) a periodical cicada, Magicicada cassini, with a 13-year life cycle, Illinois, U.S.A., (9) a dog day cicada, Tibicen sp., molting into the adult stage, Illinois, U.S.A.

hairlike (aristoid), the rostrum (modified, beaklike labium) arising from the posteroventral surface of the head, a complex sound-producing tymbal apparatus, and the wing-coupling apparatus consisting of a long, downturned fold on the

FIGURE 3 Membracoidea: leafhoppers and treehoppers: (10) a brachypterous, grass-feeding leafhopper, Doraturopsis heros, Kyrgyzstan, (11) Pagaronia triunata (Cicadellidae), California, U.S.A., (12) Eurymeloides sp. (Cicadellidae), Australia, (13) fifth instar of Neotartessus flavipes (Cicadellidae), Australia, (14) female Aetalion reticulatum (Aetalionidae) guarding egg mass, Peru, (15) ant-attended aggregation of treehopper adults and nymphs (Membracidae: Notogonia sp.), Guyana.

FIGURE 3 Membracoidea: leafhoppers and treehoppers: (10) a brachypterous, grass-feeding leafhopper, Doraturopsis heros, Kyrgyzstan, (11) Pagaronia triunata (Cicadellidae), California, U.S.A., (12) Eurymeloides sp. (Cicadellidae), Australia, (13) fifth instar of Neotartessus flavipes (Cicadellidae), Australia, (14) female Aetalion reticulatum (Aetalionidae) guarding egg mass, Peru, (15) ant-attended aggregation of treehopper adults and nymphs (Membracidae: Notogonia sp.), Guyana.

FIGURE 4 Fulgoroidea: planthoppers: (16) female Stenocranus sp. (Delphacidae) covering oviposition site with wax, Illinois, U.S.A., (17) Chanithus scolopax (Dictyopharidae), Kyrgyzstan, (18) Metcalfa pruinosa (Flatidae), Maryland, U.S.A., (19) Biolleyana sp. (Nogodinidae), Mexico, (20) Tettigometra sp. (Tettigometridae) nymphs tended by ants, Greece, (21) unidentified planthopper nymph completely covered with wax filaments, Guyana.

FIGURE 4 Fulgoroidea: planthoppers: (16) female Stenocranus sp. (Delphacidae) covering oviposition site with wax, Illinois, U.S.A., (17) Chanithus scolopax (Dictyopharidae), Kyrgyzstan, (18) Metcalfa pruinosa (Flatidae), Maryland, U.S.A., (19) Biolleyana sp. (Nogodinidae), Mexico, (20) Tettigometra sp. (Tettigometridae) nymphs tended by ants, Greece, (21) unidentified planthopper nymph completely covered with wax filaments, Guyana.

forewing and a short, upturned lobe on the hind wing. Auchenorrhyncha are abundant and ubiquitous insects, distributed worldwide in nearly all terrestrial habitats that support their host plants, but they are particularly diverse and speciose in the tropics. Some are important agricultural pests, injuring plants either directly through feeding and oviposition, or indirectly through the transmission of plant pathogens.

TABLE I Classification of the Hemipteran Suborder Auchenorrhyncha (synonyms and common names in parentheses) Excluding Extinct Taxa

Auchenorrhyncha (Cicadinea)

Infraorder Cicadomorpha (Clypeorrhyncha, Clypeata) Superfamily Cercopoidea (spittlebugs, froghoppers) Aphrophoridae Cercopidae Clastopteridae Machaerotidae Superfamily Cicadoidea (cicadas)

Cicadidae (Platypediidae, Plautillidae, Tettigadidae, Tibicinidae) Tettigarctidae (hairy cicadas) Superfamily Membracoidea (Cicadelloidea) Aetalionidae (Biturritiidae)

Cicadellidae (Eurymelidae, Hylicidae, Ledridae, Ulopidae, leafhoppers) Melizoderidae

Membracidae (Nicomiidae, treehoppers) Myerslopiidae (Cicadellidae, in part) Infraorder Fulgoromorpha (Archaeorrhyncha, planthoppers) Superfamily Fulgoroidea Acanaloniidae Achilidae Achilixiidae Cixiidae Delphacidae Derbidae Dictyopharidae Eurybrachidae Flatidae

Fulgoridae (lanternflies) Gengidae

Hypochthonellidae

Issidae

Kinnaridae

Lophopidae

Meenoplidae

Nogodinidae

Ricaniidae

Tettigometridae

Tropiduchidae

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