Systems Biology of Macrophages

Mano Ram Maurya1, Christopher Benner2, Sylvain Pradervand1, Christopher Glass2'3 and Shankar Subramaniam1,2 1 Department of Bioengineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 920930412. 2 Graduate Program in Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0412. 3 Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0651. Abstract. Cells and tissues function in context. Under a...

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ES cells have roughly 150 that number of differentially expressed genes between each of the macrophage cell types. Analyzing these lists of differentially expressed genes for functional enrichment recovered several phenotypic differences between the cell types. In general, the macrophage cell types preferentially express signal transduction and defense response genes compared to the ES cells. Conversely, the ES cells preferentially express genes associated with metabolism, development, and cell...

C4C2dependent MASP2 route C4C2bypass MASP1 route

Two routes are present in lectin pathway. Different oligomerizations of MBL exist in serum. Mainly trimer of MBL, termed as MBL-I associate with MASP-1 and sMAP, whereas tetramer of MBL, termed as MBL-II associate with MASP-2 and MASP-3. MASP-1 can trigger the complement activation in absent of C4 C2 by direct activation of C3 (C4 C2-bypass, MASP-1 route). In another route, it is essential to activate C4 and C2 by MASP-2 (C4 C2-dependent, MASP-2 route). MASP-1 might be able to enhance...

Antimicrobial C3a Biology Biophysics

Martin Malmsten and Artur Schmidtchen 1 Antimicrobial Peptides 141 2 Mode of Action of Antimicrobial Peptides 142 2.1 Bacterial Cell Walls 142 3 Antibacterial Activities of C3a 143 3.1 C3a is Antibacterial 143 3.2 Antibacterial C3a-derived Peptides 144 3.3 C3a-peptides Function in Physiological Buffers and In vivo 145 3. 4 Proteolytic Generation of C3 a-peptides 146 4 Antifugal Activities of C3a 146 4.3 Structural Requirements for Antifungal C3a-peptides 148 5 Evolution of Antimicrobial C3a 149...

C5L2 an Antiinflammatory Molecule or a Receptor for Acylation Stimulating Protein C3adesArg

1 Medical School Hannover, Department of Medical Microbiology, 30625 Hannover, Germany, johswich.kay mh-hannover.de 2 Medical School Hannover, Department of Medical Microbiology, 30625 Hannover, Germany, klos.andreas mh-hannover.de Sometimes, two seemingly unrelated research areas suddenly overlap to the surprise of the scientists involved. This has occurred to the researchers investigating in the complement field the anaphylatoxins C5a, C5a-desArg, and C3a and their receptors the C5a-receptor...

Differential Regulation of Key Signaling Molecules in Innate Immunity and Human Diseases

1 Department of Biology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0346, lwli vt.edu Following the discovery of Toll-Like-Receptors (TLRs) and related downstream signaling molecules, the field of innate immunity and inflammation has drawn immense interest. Human hosts can specifically respond to distinct non-self molecules via TLRs and illicit complex yet specific responses through the expression of diverse cellular mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, complement factors, and co-stimulatory...

The Alternative Pathway of Complement a Pattern Recognition System

Zipfel 12, Michael Mihlan 1 and Christine Skerka 1 1 Department of Infection Biology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology- Hans Knoll Institute for Natural Products Research, Jena, Germany, Peter.Zipfel hki-jena.de 2 Friedrich Schiller University Jena 1 Pattern recognition a central aspect of immune defence Discrimination between self and non self is central for the integrity of the host (Janeway and Medzhitov 2002). In order to maintain integrity, the...