To understand transcriptional regulation, consider the structure of a typical eukaryotic gene, shown in Figure 3. The promoter of a gene is the binding site for a group of general transcription factors and for RNA polymerase. Transcription begins when a complex of proteins called TFIID binds to a promoter. The sequential binding of other general transcription factors and RNA polymerase follows. A protein tail tethers the RNA polymerase to the general transcription complex. When the general transcription factor TFIIH phosphorylates this tail, the RNA polymerase is released and moves along the DNA to begin transcription.
Figure 2. Alternative mRNA splicing leads to isoforms, or related proteins.
RNA polymerase enzyme complex that creates RNA from DNA template chromatin complex of DNA, histones, and other proteins, making up chromosomes transcription factors proteins that increase the rate of gene transcription
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