Hardwood Ebooks Catalog
Microhabitat associations are the first topic I wish to consider in the multi-stage process of reproductive isolation. The Louisiana irises demonstrate distributions among habitats that contribute to limitations to interspecific gene flow. For example, while I. fulva and I. brevicaulis occur in shaded, bayou, hardwood forest, and swamp habitats, I. hexagona is found in open, freshwater marshes (Viosca 1935 Bennett and Grace 1990 Cruzan and Arnold 1993 Johnston et al. 2001). Likely because of its occurrence near coastal environments, I. hexagona demonstrates a higher
The distribution of genotypes in the boles of living trees has also been taken as an indication of the infection biology. Latent infection in beech has, for example been implied by the large-sized genets developing rapidly in trunks and branches after drought (Chapela and Boddy, 1988). Such large mycelia are thought to have been established during earlier phases of tree growth, and dormant propagules distributed extensively in the xylem were triggered to grow as mycelia by the onset of wood drying and increased aeration. Two other examples are provided by P. tremulae and P. pini. They initially establish in branches, the stubs of which ultimately become incorporated into trunk wood. In due course the sapwood becomes heartwood, again with decreased water content and improved aeration, triggering the development of active decay in the branch stubs buried in the heartwood (Haddow, 1938). The population structure of P. tremulae was consistent with this type of establishment (Holmer et...
Second, animal rights principles refer directly only to sentient beings (see SENTIENTISM), beings capable of feeling pleasure and pain.* These are all animals none are plants or nonliving things. Plants and nonliving things, like the redwood forests in which spotted owls live and the clean water fish* need to live, are morally important in animal rights philosophy only as supports for animal life. However, in environmental ethics, plants, rivers, the atmosphere, species, and ecosystems are frequently objects of moral concern for their own sake. Environmental ethicists have even acknowledged that they would support killing animals such as deer if that were the only way to preserve a species of plants the animals were eating.
Range and habitat This species is abundant in acid to neutral soils from moist woods and sandstone substrates to rocky slopes in northern and eastern North America as well as the mountains of the Southeast. The range extends westward to Tennessee, Kentucky, and eastern Missouri. It is especially common in moist and rocky hardwood habitats.
Basidiomycota also render palatable wood and leaf litter that is initially repellent or unpalatable to invertebrates due to the presence of allelopathic compounds. Again there are well-documented examples for termites (see references in Swift and Boddy, 1984). There are several examples of trees whose central heartwood is resistant to attack from termites when undecayed, but not once decay has begun. Of course, other aspects of enzyme conditioning (e.g. density reduction) may also play a part. Phenolics are also degraded by the mutualistic fungus partner on the fungus comb within termite nests (Taprab et al., 2005).
As an example, an abandoned farm field may be colonized by grasses, which inhibit the germination of trees. The grasses attract herbivores, which create openings for shrubs by intense grazing. The shrubs provide shade, which enables pine to germinate and eventually to dominate. However, when the cover becomes too dense, the pine seedlings will not grow, and hardwood trees gain an advantage. Eventually, a climax community is formed as a hardwood forest. Populations of birds and other animals change as the food supply changes.
Microclimate varies spatially and temporally (Boddy, 1984, 1986) over a range of scales. At the forest scale two important microclimatic gradients are evident a horizontal gradient from forest interior to forest edge, clearcut or natural canopy gap and a vertical gradient from forest floor to canopy. Forest interiors and lower levels in stands tend to have higher air humidity, lower wind speed, lower maximum and higher minimum temperatures compared to gaps, forest edges and open land, and gradients run from stable to variable microclimatic conditions (e.g. Chen et al., 1993 Morecroft et al., 1998 Ritter et al., 2005). Microclimatic stress is hence low in wood decomposing on the forest floor in closed forests, while fungi in dead wood in the canopy or on the floor of exposed forest edges are subject to stressful conditions. In addition, environmental conditions vary vastly between functional sapwood (with its high water content and low aeration), dysfunctional sapwood and heartwood...
Many wood-inhabiting fungi appear, based on fruit bodies, to have a preference for certain tree species. In some cases host preferences relate to interspecific differences in chemical composition, e.g. pH, presence of allelopathic compounds, bark and wood morphology (Rayner and Hedges, 1982 Rayner and Boddy, 1988). The heartwood of Quercus robur, for instance, is well known for its high durability and distinctive mycota owing to its low pH and high content of tannins (Wald et al., 2004 Heilmann-Clausen et al., 2005). In other cases intimate interactions between living host tissue and fungi able to infect functional sapwood seem to play a key role (e.g. Hrib and Rypacek, 1981 Chapela et al., 1991 Hendry et al., 1993).
Range and habitat This species is confined to the coastal regions, usually within a few hundred yards of the salty Pacific, from British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and ocean fringes to Baja California with the greatest concentration in the Pacific Northwest. Here they settle in dark woods in the crotches of the native spruce, Picea sitchensis, dead or alive, and can easily be overlooked in nature as perhaps a casually constructed spacious eagle's nest. Visitors to the Washington coast can find excellent photo ops at the state beaches especially those that are imaginatively named Beach 1 and Beach 4.
The most detailed studies on fungal community development in standing trees have focused on the sapwood of attached ash and oak branches (Boddy and Rayner, 1983 Boddy et al., 1987). In southern Britain the most common primary colonizers of oak branches were Peniophora quercina, Stereum gausapatum, Vuille-minia comedens, Phellinus ferreus and Phlebia rufa (Boddy and Rayner, 1983). Latent presence has been demonstrated for the first three (Hirst, 1995 Boddy, 2001), but presumably they all have S- and R-selected characters allowing them to exist latently in functional sapwood, and then to develop overtly as mycelia as soon as the high water content poor aeration regime is alleviated. T. versicolor, P. radiata and Stereum hirsutum were identified as combative secondary colonizers whose establishment depends on conditions having ameliorated sufficiently to allow their growth, and whether they are better combatants under the conditions obtaining. Other secondary colonizers, e.g. Hyphoderma...
Fungal community development in bulky wood on the forest floor has been studied in a number of cases, especially in Fagus spp., which we describe here as a model system for wood decay in angiosperms. Decay community development in other deciduous tree species seems to follow similar pathways (Gricius et al., 1999 Hood et al., 2004 Lindhe et al., 2004), though some differences are evident reflecting differences in bark and wood morphology and wood chemistry. In many Betula spp. the bark is usually intact until final decay stages (J. HeilmannClausen, personal observation), making access for secondary colonizers more difficult. Similarly, species which possess true heartwood, e.g. Quercus spp., present widely different decay environments, where decay proceeds following different pathways in sapwood and heartwood. There have been detailed studies on fungal community structure of felled beech logs, at the mycelial level, during the first 4.5-5 years of decay (Coates and Rayner, 1985a,...
Gypsy moth larvae feed on a wide range of tree species. Favored tree species include oaks (Quercus spp.), aspen (Populus spp.), and, in Japan, Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis. Gypsy moth outbreaks occur in forests that are dominated by these species. Gypsy moth will feed on many other tree species, such as maple (Acer spp.) and many conifers, but significant damage to these trees usually occurs only in gypsy moth outbreaks, when more favored hosts have already been defoliated. If defoliation is complete, most deciduous hardwood trees will put out a new set of leaves. Most trees will survive one defoliation, but if outbreaks persist for several years in a row, a significant proportion of the trees may die. Trees that survive defoliation suffer growth loss in subsequent years.
Occupational exposure to a variety of substances is known to be capable of causing asthma. This is an allergic reaction in which exposure causes histamine to be released. Histamine stimulates the bronchi to contract, greatly increasing breathing resistance. This is known to affect bakers exposed to flour and workers exposed to wood dust, as well as butchers exposed to fumes caused by heat-sealing PVC films for wrapping meat. Some people become sensitized to toluene diisocyanate, which is used in polyurethane products. Subsequent exposures to very small amounts can cause a severe asthma attack.
Among all plants, trees present the most diverse habitats for insects to occupy. Insects feed on all parts of the tree, i.e., vegetative structures such as leaves, stems, and roots and reproductive structures such as flowers, fruits, and seeds. Some insects are specialized to feed on phloem and or xylem tissues, dead sapwood, and heartwood. Insects that feed on these structures and tissues vary in size from 1 2 mm (scale insects) to 6 cm (longhorned beetles). Life cycles (from egg to adult) can be completed in a few days or weeks (aphids) or be prolonged for 50 years (metallic wood borers).
FIGURE 1 Insecticide fogging being released from a knockdown insecticide fogging machine in a hardwood plantation in Cameroon. Note the circular catchment trays suspended above the ground to catch the falling insects released by the insecticide. (Photograph by N. Stork.) FIGURE 1 Insecticide fogging being released from a knockdown insecticide fogging machine in a hardwood plantation in Cameroon. Note the circular catchment trays suspended above the ground to catch the falling insects released by the insecticide. (Photograph by N. Stork.)
Transgenic technology is also being applied to several commercially important tree species, including poplar, eucalyptus, aspen, sweet gum, white spruce, walnut, and apple. The first traits being genetically engineered into trees are herbicide tolerance and insect resistance, which may be useful for establishing and maintaining young trees and protecting valuable fruits. Several traits are under development to better adapt trees to postharvest processing. For example, the lignin content of certain tree species is being engineered to improve pulping, the process by which wood fibers are separated to make paper. Reduced lignin may improve the efficiency of paper production and reduce pollution from the paper-production process.
36.1 g wood to supply 1 g of spores, based on mean nitrogen content of fruit bodies (1.13 ), spores (3.05 ) and Betula sapwood (0.83 Merrill and Cowling, 1966). Since fruit bodies are commonly 1 kg or more, and several grams of spores are produced each year (Fomes fomentarius produced 1.115 g spores in 20 days (Meyer, 1936)), a mycelium would need to draw upon the entire nitrogen content of more than 14 kg wood.
Huperzia lucidula (shining), synonym Lycopodium lucidu-lum, is a glistening green creeper that roots from underground rhizomes in Zones 2 to 6. The 3 s-in. (9-mm) leaves are toothed and on 6-in. (15-cm) shoots that have winter growth constrictions. With age the shoots become brown and decumbent. Gemmae are tucked in the ultimate whorl of the current year's leaves. This species grows in rich soil in damp coniferous and hardwood forests from upper midwestern North America to the East Coast.
LABURNUM wood, a hardwood, was used for all purposes where strength and elasticity were needed, for parts of musical instruments, for example (Brimble). Flutes were once made from it (Ablett). Irish harps were usually made of WILLOW wood, for these trees have a soul in them which speaks in music (Wilde. 1890). Evelyn. 1678 described CYPRESS timber as a very sonorous wood , enough to account for its use for organ-pipes, harps, etc. And the wood of LOCUST BEAN (Catalpa bignonioides) was prized for making musical instruments.
(Shorea robusta) A valued hardwood in India, taken in Bengal as the seat of the gods, and an emblem of Indra (Gupta). The mother of Buddha is represented as holding a branch of this tree in her hand, and it was under this tree that Buddha passed the last night of his life on earth (Pandey). In Indian villages, witches were discovered with the aid of this tree. The names of all the women in the village over twelve years of age were written on the bark of the branches. These branches were then steeped in water for a given length of time (four and a half hours, apparently). If after that time one of them withered, the woman whose name was written on it was deemed to be a witch (Porteous).
Redwood Shores, California 94065 (650) 506-7000 http www.oracle.com Their product, Darwin, utilizes parallel computing to rapidly deliver results. Darwin was originally developed by Thinking Machines Corp., which was acquired by Oracle in 1999. This software runs on most platforms, including high-end mainframes and personal computers. Various algorithms available in this software include decision tree, regression, genetic, neural net, and visualization. Oracle Corp. is considered one of the world's largest suppliers of database systems.
Description This fern grows from a stout and ascending rhizome as a stately clump with tall arching fronds to 4 ft. (1.2 m) at the northern end of its range and closer to 8 ft. (2.4) in the mild temperatures of California's redwood forests. The greenish stipe is about one-third the length of the frond. The coarse dark green pinnate-pinnatifid blade is lanceolate and tapers slightly at the base. The pinnae with fine hairlike teeth are alternate and pointed. The chains of sori covered with a vegetative flap are parallel to the midvein and prominently visible on the upper surface of the frond. Note that the new growth is not red-toned nor does the frond sport a bulbil. range and habitat The giant chain fern is a coastal species located in moist coniferous woodlands from a few rare stations in British Columbia down through Southern California. It is especially common and impressive in the redwood forests of California.
Worldwide the distribution is extensive and includes Europe, Asia, North Africa, the Middle East, and North America. Universally these ferns are primarily associated with limestone rocks and substrates. The rare North American native, Phyllitis scolopendrium var. americana, grows almost exclusively in shaded quarries and limestone-rich habitats frequently in hardwood forests. Alert visitors to Europe and Britain will find their native species, and an occasional variation, in mortared rubble on antiquities, faces of buildings, and in chinks on roadside walls (and can amuse the locals by taking close-up photographs of their flora ). Garden specimens do acclimate in circumneutral soil as well but appreciate an amendment of ground oyster or eggshells, concrete pebbles, limestone chips, or other additives that offer a steady and slow release of lime. Powdered supplements of dolomite or lawn sweeteners are not recommended. However, fellow enthusiasts give an endorsement to pelleted...
(Santalum album) A fragrant oil, called Oil of Santal, is distilled from the heartwood for use in perfumery and cosmetics. The paste that can be got by rubbing the wood on a stone with a little water is used for painting the body after bathing, and is also used for making caste marks, especially in south India (Pandey). The Chinese make joss sticks from the wood (Usher), and incense from the sawdust, mixed with swine's dung( ) (Moldenke & Moldenke). The oil is used for the treatment of urinary complaints and sexually transmitted diseases, and heartwood is sliced and used in Chinese medicine for abdominal and chest pains, i.e., angina (Geng Junying). In Indian mythology, it is described as surrounded by snakes, but it is a sacred tree, and the devotees of Vishnu apply a paste made from it on their foreheads. Hindu funeral pyres are made from it if the family is rich enough to afford such a luxury (Upadhyaya).
It is reckoned a lucky tree in Ireland. It is a good thing to take a sallow rod with you on a journey (Grigson. 1955), and they reckoned that the butter would be bound to come if a peeled rod were put round the churn, just as they believed that driving cows with a sally rod would ensure a good supply of milk (O'Farrell). When these willows get big, the heart-wood turns red, and if kept dry, it is said to last as long as the oak, hence the proverb
Wood Working 101
Have you ever wanted to begin woodworking at home? Woodworking can be a fun, yet dangerous experience if not performed properly. In The Art of Woodworking Beginners Guide, we will show you how to choose everything from saws to hand tools and how to use them properly to avoid ending up in the ER.