The vulva is the area of the perineum including the Mons pubis, labia majora and minora and the opening into both the vagina and urethra (Fig. 1.5). The labia majora are areas of skin with underlying fat pads which bound the vagina. Medial to these are the labia minora which consist of vascular tissue which reacts to the stimulation of sexual arousal. Anteriorly they come together to form the prepuce of the clitoris and posteriorly they form the forchette.

Fig. 1.4 Transverse view of the pelvic organs.

Cavity of uterus


Uterovesical pouch

Bladder Pubic symphysis

Urethra Urogenital diaphragm


Remnant Frenulum


Squamous epithelium

The Pouch of Douglas Rectum

Anococcygeal body Anus

Perineal body

Mons veneris

Prepuce of clitoris Frenulum of clitoris

Skene's ducts Vestibule

Anal orifice

Prepuce of clitoris Frenulum of clitoris

Skene's ducts Vestibule

Anal orifice

Labia Minora Side

Mons veneris

Glans of clitoris Urethral orifice Labia majora Labia minora Bartholin's duct Vaginal orifice

Fig. 1.5 Surface anatomy of the vulva.

The hymen is a fold of vaginal mucosa at the entrance to this organ. It usually has a small opening in virgins and is only seen as an irregular remnant in sexually active women.

To each side of the introitus are the ducts of the vestibular glands commonly known as Bartholin's glands which produce much of the lubrication at sexual intercourse.

The vulval blood supply comes from the pudendal artery and lymphatic drainage is through the inguinal lymph nodes. The nerve supply comes mostly from the pudendal nerve and pelvic plexus with branches of the perineal nerves and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh important in the posterior region.

Getting Back Into Shape After The Pregnancy

Getting Back Into Shape After The Pregnancy

Once your pregnancy is over and done with, your baby is happily in your arms, and youre headed back home from the hospital, youll begin to realize that things have only just begun. Over the next few days, weeks, and months, youre going to increasingly notice that your entire life has changed in more ways than you could ever imagine.

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