Like every epithelium, the villous trophoblast displays a continuous turnover comprising: 1 proliferation of cytotrophoblast stem cells,
2 differentiation of post-proliferative daughter cells (23 days),
3 syncytial fusion of these cells with the overlying syncy-tiotrophoblast,
4 further differentiation and maturation within the syn-cytiotrophoblast (3-4 weeks),
5 aging and late apoptosis at specific sites of the syncy-tiotrophoblast, and finally
6 packing of old material into syncytial knots and extrusion of membrane-sealed corpuscles into the maternal circulation.
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The first trimester is very important for the mother and the baby. For most women it is common to find out about their pregnancy after they have missed their menstrual cycle. Since, not all women note their menstrual cycle and dates of intercourse, it may cause slight confusion about the exact date of conception. That is why most women find out that they are pregnant only after one month of pregnancy.