There are many validated questionnaires available although all have the same structure, consisting of a series of sections (domains) designed to gather information regarding particular aspects of health (Table 49.2). There are two types of QoL questionnaires, generic and disease, or condition-specific.
More recently the International Consultation on Incontinence (ICI) has published levels of recommendation for both generic and disease-specific questionnaires  (Table 49.3).
Generic questionnaires are designed as general measures of QoL and are therefore applicable to a wide range of populations and clinical conditions. Many different validated
Table 49.2 Quality of life domains
Physical function, e.g. mobility, self-care, exercise Emotional function, e.g. depression, anxiety, worry Social function, e.g. intimacy, social support, social contact leisure activities Role performance, e.g. work, housework, shopping Pain
Sleep/nausea Disease-specific symptoms Severity measures
Table 49.3 Criteria for the recommendation of questionnaires
Grade of recommendation Evidence required
Grade C With potential
Published data indicating that it is valid, reliable and responsive to change on psychometric testing
Published data indicating that it is valid and reliable on psychometric testing
Published data (including abstracts) indicating that it is valid or reliable or responsive on psychometric testing
Table 49.4 Generic quality of life questionnaires
Generic quality of life questionnaires (Grade A) Short form 36 (SF-36) 
Generic quality of life questionnaires (Grade B) Sickness impact profile  Nottingham health profile  Goteborg quality of life 
Table 49.5 Disease-specific quality of life questionnaires
Disease-specific quality of life questionnaires (Grade A) Urogenital distress inventory (UDI)  Urogenital distress inventory - 6 (UDI-6)  Urge UDI 
Incontinence severity index  Quality of life in persons with urinary incontinence (I-QoL)  King's health questionnaire  Incontinence impact questionnaire (IIQ) 
generic questionnaires have been developed although not all are suitable for the assessment of lower urinary tract problems Table 49.4. They are not specific to a particular disease, treatment or age group and hence allow broad comparisons to be made. Consequently they lack sensitivity when applied to women with lower urinary tract symptoms and may be unable to detect clinically important improvement.
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