The ovaries vary in size depending on age and their function. They are approximately 2 x 4 cm2 with the long axis running vertically and are attached to the posterior leaf of the broad ligament by the mesovarium. In addition they are fixed in position by the ovarian ligament (to the uterus medially) and the infundibulopelvic ligament which contains the ovarian blood supply direct from the aorta. Venous drainage is to the ovarian veins which drain direct into the inferior vena cava on the right and into the renal vein on the left. The aortic nerve plexus also accompanies the ovary in its descent from around the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
The lateral pelvic side wall is covered by peritoneum which is folded to form the ovarian fossa. Pathological adhesions around the ovary will often cause it to be fixed into the ovarian fossa causing cyclical pain or dyspareunia.
The ovary is not covered by peritoneum but is surrounded by a thin membranous capsule, the tunica albuginea, which in turn is covered by the germinal epithelium.
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The first trimester is very important for the mother and the baby. For most women it is common to find out about their pregnancy after they have missed their menstrual cycle. Since, not all women note their menstrual cycle and dates of intercourse, it may cause slight confusion about the exact date of conception. That is why most women find out that they are pregnant only after one month of pregnancy.