For further reading on structural characteristics of the placenta, see  or ; the definition of fibrinoid, see ;
trophoblast and its changes during pre-eclampsia, see ; a detailed descriptions on pathologies of the macroscopic features of the placenta, see ; the classification of villi and the types of villi, see ; stereological parameters of the growing placenta, see ; syncytial fusion and the involvement of apoptosis, see  and ;
the impact of oxygen on placental development and placental-related disorders of pregnancy, see ; the composition and characteristics of fetal membranes, see ; rupture of fetal membranes, see ; placental assessment by ultrasound, see ; placental Doppler, see [40,43,44]; developmental placental pathology, see [1,37].
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The first trimester is very important for the mother and the baby. For most women it is common to find out about their pregnancy after they have missed their menstrual cycle. Since, not all women note their menstrual cycle and dates of intercourse, it may cause slight confusion about the exact date of conception. That is why most women find out that they are pregnant only after one month of pregnancy.