Robinson and L Cardozo

Urinary incontinence is a distressing condition that, although rarely life threatening, severely affects all aspects of a woman's quality of life. Through ignorance, embarrassment and a belief that loss of bladder control is a 'normal' result of child birth and ageing, many women suffer for years before seeking help [1]. This is unfortunate because with appropriate investigations an accurate diagnosis can be made and many women can be cured, most improved and all helped by various different management strategies.

Urinary incontinence is defined as the complaint of any involuntary loss of urine [2]. Conversely, continence is the ability to hold urine within the bladder at all times except during micturition. Both continence and micturition depend upon a lower urinary tract, consisting of the bladder and urethra, which is structurally and functionally normal. In order to understand urinary incontinence in women it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of the lower urinary tract.

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Getting Back Into Shape After The Pregnancy

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