Consistent use of barrier methods has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent episodes of pelvic infection and also the chronic sequelae of pelvic infection by between 30 and 60%.
All forms of hormonal contraception (e.g. combined oral contraceptive pill, progesterone-only pill, progesterone injections and implants and Mirena IUS) have been shown to reduce the incidence of symptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease compared to either the use of a standard IUCD or unprotected intercourse. This is presumed to be due to the protective effect of the progestogens which decreases the permeability of the cervical mucus both to sperm and pathogens.
It may also have an effect through endometrial suppression or a direct steroidal induced effect on the inflammatory response in the tubes. The beneficial effect of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) may, however, be limited to PID which is symptomatic and caused by C. trachomatis  and it has been suggested that hormonal contraception may in fact simply be masking infection rather than preventing it . A very recent cohort study which appeared to suggest that injectable progesterone contraception increased the risk of PID was methodologically flawed and hence may not be valid . The true relationship between hormonal contraception and PID therefore still needs to be elucidated.
Was this article helpful?
The first trimester is very important for the mother and the baby. For most women it is common to find out about their pregnancy after they have missed their menstrual cycle. Since, not all women note their menstrual cycle and dates of intercourse, it may cause slight confusion about the exact date of conception. That is why most women find out that they are pregnant only after one month of pregnancy.