Conclusion

Much of the advance in prenatal diagnosis has come from major breakthroughs in molecular techniques which have greatly enhanced our knowledge of many genetic diseases and thus allowed the development of precise diagnostic tests for these conditions. However, hand in hand with the immense possibilities these new techniques offer, come problems that are not so easily resolved. For example, quality assurance and standards have to be rigorously set and consistently achieved in every laboratory involved in genetic testing. Often this is difficult to achieve because of the lack of universally accepted quality assurance programmes.

Ethical dilemmas have arisen surrounding the screening and identification of genetic markers responsible with late onset conditions. Is it appropriate to offer or perform prenatal diagnosis when it is known that the condition only develops late in life (e.g. Huntington's disease)? The abuse of prenatal tests is a very real issue that will challenge society both ethically and legally in a multitude of ways. The practising obstetrician will have to be aware of some of the issues in order to manage affected patients appropriately. In the future, current arguments about the best Down syndrome screening test will seem very simplistic and probably very naïve indeed.

Pregnancy Diet Plan

Pregnancy Diet Plan

The first trimester is very important for the mother and the baby. For most women it is common to find out about their pregnancy after they have missed their menstrual cycle. Since, not all women note their menstrual cycle and dates of intercourse, it may cause slight confusion about the exact date of conception. That is why most women find out that they are pregnant only after one month of pregnancy.

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